Fédération Cynologique Internationale

United Kennel Club

Tornjak

Tornjak


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
16.05.2007.

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Herding and protection of livestock; farmyard guard dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 2Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid
Section 2.2Molossoid breeds, Mountain type
Without working trial

UKC
Guardian Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Dubravka Reicher, prof. Revised by Jennifer Mulholland and Raymond Triquet.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
The almost extinct descendants of genetically homogeneous, native archaic types of shepherd dogs have been the foundation stock for the re-creation of the breed “Tornjak”. The dogs belonging to the original stock had been dispersed in mountain areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and their surrounding valleys.
The major historical dates are the years 1067 and 1374. Written documents from these periods mention the Bosnianherzegovinian-Croatian breed for the first time.
The research about their historical and more recent existence and then a systematic salvation from extinction started simultaneously in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina around 1972 and continuous pure blood breeding began in 1978. Nowadays, the breed population consists of numerous, purebred dogs selected during a series of generations dispersed throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
UKC
The almost extinct descendants of genetically homogeneous, native historical types of shepherd dogs served as the foundation stock for the re-creation of the breed. The dogs belonging to the original stock had been dispersed in the mountain areas and surrounding valleys of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Croatia. Written documents dating from 1067 and 1374 mention the Bosnian-Herzegovinian-Croatian breed. The research on the breed’s historical and more recent existence, and then a systematic recovery from extinction began simultaneously in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovinia around 1972, and continuous pure breeding began in 1978. Currently the breed population consists of numerous purebred dogs selected during a series of generations dispersed throughout Bosnia, Herzegovina and Croatia. The Tornjak (also known as the Bosnian and Herzegovinian - Croatian Shepherd Dog) was recognized by the United Kennel Club August 18, 2011.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
The Tornjak is a large and powerful dog, well proportioned and agile. The shape of the body is almost square. The bone is not light, but nevertheless not heavy nor coarse. He is strong, harmonious and well balanced when standing and moving. His coat is long and thick.
UKC
The Tornjak is large, powerful, well-proportioned and agile. The shape of the body is almost square. The length of the body should not exceed its height by more than eight percent. The bone is not light, nor is it heavy or coarse. It is strong, harmonious and well-balanced when standing and moving. Coat is long and thick. The ratio between the length of the skull and the muzzle is 1:1. Skin is thick and well-fitting all over the body.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI

The body is almost square. The length of the body should not exceed its height by more than 8%.
The ratio between the length of the skull and the muzzle is 11.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Of steady disposition, friendly, courageous, obedient, intelligent, full of dignity and self confidence. Fierce in guarding property entrusted to him, cannot be bribed and is suspicious of strangers. Devoted to his master and very calm in his presence. Very affectionate towards persons living in his immediate vicinity. Learns quickly and keeps this in his memory for a long time, gladly performs tasks assigned to him. He is easy to train.
UKC
The Tornjak has a steady disposition, is friendly, courageous, obedience, intelligent, and full of dignity and self confidence. Fierce in guarding property entrusted to him, he cannot be bribed, and is suspicious of strangers. The breed is devoted to its master and very calm in his presence. They are very affectionate towards people with whom they are familiar. The breed is easy to train, learns quickly, retains it for a long time, and gladly performs tasks assigned to him.

HEAD

:
FCI
Elongated. The ratio between the skull and the muzzle is 11.
UKC
The head is elongated. The ratio between the length of the skull and the muzzle is 1:1. The upper lines (planes) of the skull and muzzle are divergent. Supra-orbital ridges (brows) are slightly visible. The hind part of the skull is elongated, but moderately wide. The area from the brows to the occiput is flat. The occiput is very slightly pronounced. The stop is slightly pronounced.

CRANIAL REGION

:
FCI
The upper lines of the skull and muzzle are divergent. Supra-orbital arches are slightly visible. The hind part of the skull is elongated but moderately wide. The area from supra-orbital arches to the occiput is flat. The occipital protuberance is very slight.

Stop

:
FCI
Slightly pronounced.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Large with sufficiently wide nostrils. Should have dark pigmentation. Pigmentation in harmony with the colour of the coat. Depigmentation is not allowed.
UKC
The nose is large, with sufficiently wide nostrils. Pigmentation color depends on the color of the coat. Dark pigment is preferred.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Rectangular. The bridge of the nose is perfectly straight.
UKC
The muzzle is rectangular. The bridge of the nose is perfectly straight. The lips are tight-fitting and have dark pigmentation. The strong jaws are very long.

Lips

:
FCI
Tight fitting with dark pigmentation.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Jaws are very long and strong. Perfect scissor bite with full dentition.
UKC
A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors bite.

Eyes

:
FCI
Almond shaped, close fitting lids, dark colour. Dark pigmentation on edges of eyelids.
UKC
The dark, almond shaped eyes have close fitting lids. The eyelids have dark pigmentation.

Ears

:
FCI
Of medium size, triangular, folded and pendant, set rather high. Carried close to the cheeks. With shorter hair.
UKC
The medium size, triangular shaped ears are folded and pendant; carried close to the cheeks. The hair is short on the ears.

NECK

:
FCI
Of medium length, powerful, carried slightly low. Skin tight fitting. Long, abundant coat forming a mane.
UKC
The medium length, powerful neck is carried slightly low. Skin is tight-fitting. Long, abundant coat forms a mane.

BODY

:

Withers

:
FCI
Moderately developed.

Back

:
FCI
Short, taut, moderately broad and straight..

Loin

:
FCI
Connection between chest and croup is short and moderately broad; in females it is a bit longer.

Croup

:
FCI
Of medium length, broad and slightly sloping.

Chest

:
FCI
Very spacious, deep, broad and oval shaped. The lowest point of brisket reaches at least to the elbows. Never barrel shaped. Chest is strong, with moderately pronounced point of sternum.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Belly well muscled. The underline is not tucked up but gradually slopes up from the end of the sternum to the rear.

TAIL

:
FCI
Long, set at medium height, very mobile. When relaxed it is hanging and in movement it is always raised over the level of the back, which is characteristic of the breed. Abundantly coated with distinct plume.
UKC
The tail is long, very mobile, and is set at medium height. When relaxed, it hangs down. When in motion, it is always raised over the level of the back, which is a characteristic of the breed. The tail is abundantly coated, and has a distinct plume.

LIMBS

:
FCI
Strong and well angulated.

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
Well developed, strong bones, tight muscles. Parallel and upright when standing.
UKC
The withers are moderately developed. The back is short, taut, moderately broad and straight. The loin is short and moderately broad. In females, the loin may be a bit longer. The medium length croup if broad and slightly sloping. The shoulders are well laid back and of medium length. The scapula-humerus angle is about 120 degrees. The elbows are held moderately close to the body. The upright forearms have strong bones and developed muscles. The pasterns are slightly sloping. The front feet have arched, tightly knit toes. The nails are pigmented, with dark pigmentation preferred. The pads are resilient, hard and tight. Dark pigmentation is desired. The front feet are more developed than the hind feet. The chest is very strong, deep, spacious, broad and oval-shaped. The lowest point of the brisket reaches at least to the elbows. The point of the sternum is moderately pronounced. The belly is well-muscled. The underline is not tucked up but gradually slopes from the end of the sternum to the rear. The front legs are well-developed, have strong bones, tight muscles, and are well angulated. They are parallel and straight when the dog is standing. The strong, muscular upper arm is almost the same length as the shoulder.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Of medium length, well laid back. The scapular- humerus angle is about 120°.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Muscular and strong. Almost the same length as shoulders.

Elbow

:
FCI
Moderately close to the body.

Forearm

:
FCI
Strong bones, developed muscles, upright.

Pastern

:
FCI
Slightly sloping.

FEET

:

Forefeet

:
FCI
Toes arched and tightly knit. Nails pigmented, dark pigmentation desirable. Resilient pads, hard and tight, dark pigmentation desirable. Front feet more developed than hind feet.

Hind feet

:
FCI
Toes arched and tightly knit. Nails pigmented, dark pigmentation desirable. Resilient pads, hard and tight, dark pigmentation desirable.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
Strong and parallel. Upright when standing with adequate angulation. Knee well bent.
UKC
The hind legs are strong, parallel, well angulated and upright when standing, and have adequate angulation. The knees are well bent. The upper thighs are broad, strong and well muscled. The lower thighs are well-muscled, strong and broad, and are the same length as the upper thighs. The firm hocks are set a bit high. The rear pastern is strong. Dewclaws may be found; removal is acceptable. The hind feet have arched, tightly knit toes. The nails are pigmented, with dark pigmentation preferred. The pads are resilient, hard and tight, dark pigmentation is desired.

Thigh

:
FCI
Broad, strong, well muscled.

Lower thigh

:
FCI
Well muscled, strong, broad, of the same length as the upper thigh.

Hock

:
FCI
Firm, set a bit high.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
Strong. Possible existence of dewclaws.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
The Tornjak is a trotter. Movement is well balanced, supple, long reaching, harmonious, with strong drive from hindquarters. In movement the backline is firm.
UKC
The Tornjak customarily moves at a trot. Movement is well-balanced, supple, long-reaching and harmonious, with strong drive from the hindquarters. The backline remains firm during movement.

SKIN

:
FCI
The skin is thick, well fitting all over the body.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
In general, the Tornjak is a long coated dog with short hair over the face and legs. The topcoat is long, thick, coarse and straight. It is specially long on the upper part of the croup; over the shoulders and the back it can also be slightly wavy. On the muzzle and the forehead, up to the imaginary line connecting the ears, over the ears and on the front parts of legs and feet it is short. It is especially abundant around the neck (mane), dense and long over the upper thighs (breeches). It forms feathers along the forearms. With well coated dogs it is also especially abundant on the rear of hind pasterns. The tail is richly coated with very long hair. Winter undercoat is long, very thick and of nice woolly texture. Hair is thick and dense and should not part along the back.
UKC
The breed is double-coated. In general, the Tornjak is a long-coated dog, with short hair on the face and legs. The topcoat is long, thick, coarse and straight. It is especially long on the upper part of the croup. Over the shoulders and the back, it can also be slightly wavy. On the muzzle and the forehead, up to an imaginary line connecting the ears, over the ears, and on the front part of the legs and feet, it is short. It is especially abundant around the neck (mane), and dense and long over the upper thighs (breeches). There are feathers along the forearms. In well-coated dogs, it is also especially abundant on the rear of the hind pasterns. The tail is richly coated, with very long hair. Winter undercoat is long, very thick and of nice woolly texture. The hair is thick and dense, but should not part along the back.

COLOUR

:
FCI

As a rule the Tornjak is parti-coloured with distinct markings of various solid colours.
Usually the dominant ground colour is white. There may be dogs with a black mantle and with white markings most often found around the neck, over the head and along the legs. There may also be almost white dogs with only small markings.
UKC
As a rule, the Tornjak is parti-colored, with distinct markings of various solid colors. Usually the dominant ground/base color is white. There may be dogs with a black mantle (all over the body), and with white markings most often found around the neck, over the head, and along the legs. There may also be almost white dogs with only small markings, but usually with spots/markings on the legs and head (similar to a mask), and on the body.

SIZE

:

Height at withers

:
FCI
Dogs: 65 - 70 cm; Bitches: 60 - 65 cm. With a tolerance of +/- 2cm
UKC
Height at the withers for males is from 25½ to 27½ inches (65 to 70 cm), with a tolerance +/- of ¾ of an inch. Height at the withers for females is from 23½ to 25½ inches (65 to 70 cm), with a tolerance +/- of ¾ of an inch.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • Bones too fine or too heavy.
  • Head too fine or too coarse.
  • Faults with ears (set on, length, coating).
  • Pincer bite.
  • Absence of 2 p2, 2 p3. Absence of more than 2 p1.
  • Back too long.
  • Roached or saddle back.
  • Distinctly overbuilt dog.
  • Faulty angulation.
  • Elbows turned in or out.
  • Tail laid on the back.
  • Poorly coated tail.
  • Hair of insufficient length.
  • Dark mask.
  • Weak feet.
UKC

Any departure from what is listed regarding the following is to be considered a fault, the seriousness of which should be in direct proportion to its degree, and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Bone too heavy or too fine. Head too fine or too coarse. Ears too long, too short. Hanging ears. Even bite3. Absence of 2 p2, 2 p3 teeth. Absence of more than 1 p1. Back too long. Roached or saddle back. Distinctly over-built dog. Faulty angulation. Elbows turned in or out. Tail laid on the back. Poorly coated tail. Hair of insufficient length. Lack of undercoat. Dark mask. Weak feet.
Appearance: Bone too heavy or too fine. Distinctly over-built dog. Faulty angulation.
Head: Head too fine or too coarse
Teeth: Even bite. Absence of 2 p2, 2 p3 teeth. Absence of more than 1 p1.
Ears: Ears too long, too short. Hanging ears.
Forequarters: Back too long. Roached or saddle back.
Forequarters: Elbows turned in or out. Weak feet.
Hindquarters: Weak feet.
Tail: Tail laid on the back. Poorly coated tail.
Coat: Hair of insufficient length. Lack of undercoat.
Color: Dark mask.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
UKC
Forequarters: Barrel shaped chest.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Untypical distribution of colours over the body.
  • Diversion from allowed height limits (tolerance included).
  • Cosmetic treatment of dog or evidence of cosmetic or surgical treatments.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Lack of type (untypical dogs).
  • Deviation of sexual type.
  • Anomalies in colour and shape of eyes (wall eyes, vicious expression, different colour of eyes).
  • Entropion, ectropion.
  • Overshot or undershot mouth.
  • Absence of any other teeth than those mentioned above as faults.
  • Hair too short.
  • Lack of undercoat.
  • Kinked tail.
  • Absence of tail.
  • Solid coloured dogs.
  • Albinism.
UKC

Appearance: Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Eliminating Faults: Cosmetic alteration of dog, or evidence of cosmetic or surgical alteration.
Characteristics: Viciousness or extreme shyness.
Head: Dudley nose.
Teeth: Overshot or undershot bites. Missing teeth other than those mentioned.
Eyes: Entropianism, ectropianism. Anomalies in color and shape of eyes (wall eyes, vicious expression, eyes of different colors).
Tail: Kinked tail. Absence of tail.
Color: Solid colored dog.
Color: Albinism.
Height: Diversion from height limit (tolerance included).


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.