Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Schipperke

Schipperke

Schipperke


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Belgium.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
28.07.2009.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Small guardian and companion dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 1Sheepdogs and Cattledogs
Section 1Sheepdogs
Without working trial

KC
Utility
UKC
Companion Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Pamela Jeans Brown, Raymond Triquet and Dr. Robert Pollet. Revised by Jennifer Mulholland.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
In the Flemish dialect, Schipperke means « little shepherd ». The common ancestor of the Belgian Shepherds and the Schipperke was probably a sheepdog called Leuvenaar, an early breed, usual1y rather small and black. The Schipperke’s origins go back to the 17th century. About 1690, the Schipperke was the favourite dog of working people and cobblers from the St.Gery quarter of Brussels, who used to organise competitions to show off the intricately worked brass collars with which they adorned their dogs. Its tail was completely docked, a fashion which seems to have existed since the 15th century. It was renowned as a catcher of mice, rats, moles and other vermin. The Schipperke was shown for the first time in 1882 in the town of Spa. It became fashionable thanks to Queen Marie-Henriette of Belgium. It was introduced into Great Britain and the U.S.A. in 1887. The first standard was drawn up in 1888 by the breed club, founded that year, which is the oldest breed club in Belgium. Over the years great efforts have had to be made to unify the type. Indeed at that time there was discussion about the different varieties coming from Anvers, Louvain and Brussels.
UKC
Schipperke means “little shepherd” in Flemish. A small, black sheepdog that was called Leuvenaar was probably the common ancestor of the Belgian Shepherd and the Schipperke. Schipperkes have been used as vermin catchers for many centuries. They became fashionable thanks to Queen Marie-Henriette of Belgium. They were introduced into Great Britain and the USA in 1887.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
Lupoid. The Schipperke is a sheepdog of small dimensions but very solidly built.
Its head is wedge-shaped with a quite well-developed skull, and a relatively short muzzle. Its body is well-balanced, short, quite broad and stocky but its limbs are fine-boned. Its coat is very characteristic, well-furnished and with straight hair, forming a ruff, a mane, a frill and culottes which give it its truly unique outline. The difference between the sexes is evident. Its straightforward morphology, allied to its sheepdog characteristics and temperament, and added to its small size, explains its great popularity which extends well beyond the Belgian borders.
KC
Small, cobby, active dog, with sharp foxy expression.
UKC
The Schipperke is a small, solidly built dog, square in proportion, with a wedge-shaped head and a distinctive black coat that grows in a specific pattern. It has a broad, stocky body but its limbs are fine in bone.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI

Height at withers equals length of body, hence this is a squarely built dog.
Chest comes down level with elbows.
Muzzle is definitely less long than half the length of the head.
KC
Intensely lively and alert.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
An excellent small guard dog, an exceptional alarm, bubbling with vitality, aloof with strangers. Active and busy, agile, tireless, perpetual1y interested in what is going on around it, inclined to snap if anyone approaches objects it has been given to guard, very gentle with children, always curious to know what is going on behind a closed door or behind an object which is being moved, showing its reaction by its high-pitched bark, its raised mane and hackles. It is an inquisitive dog which will hunt rats, moles and other vermin.
KC
Amenable, intelligent and faithful.
UKC
The Schipperke is an excellent small guard dog, good at giving alarm, and aloof with strangers. It is active, agile and tirelessly interested in what is going on around it. The breed is gentle with children and useful as a vermin hunter.

HEAD

:
FCI
Lupoid, wedge-shaped, but not too long and wide enough to balance with the body. Brows and cheek bones are moderately arched. Transition from cranial region to facial region is visible but must not be too pronounced.
KC
Skull not round, but fairly broad, flat, with little stop. Muzzle moderate in length, fine but not weak, well filled under eyes. Nose black and small.
UKC
The head is fairly broad, wedge-shaped, and not too long. The brows and the cheekbones are moderately arched. The stop is apparent but not exaggerated. The toplines of the skull and muzzle lie in parallel planes.

CRANIAL REGION

:
FCI
Quite a wide forehead, narrowing towards the eyes, slightly rounded when seen in profile. The top lines of the skull and the muzzle are parallel.

Skull

:
UKC
The skull is wide between the ears, narrowing towards the eyes. In profile, it is slightly rounded.

Stop

:
FCI
Pronounced but not exaggerated.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Smal1, nose leather always black.
UKC
The nose is small and black.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Tapering towards the nose; well-chiselled, not too long, and not truncated; length approximately 40 per cent of the total length of the head; rectilinear foreface.
KC
Jaws strong, with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
UKC
The muzzle tapers in width towards the nose and has tight-fitting black lips. The length of the muzzle is slightly less that one-half the length of the entire head.

Lips

:
FCI
Black, close-fitting.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Healthy, well-set teeth. Scissor bite, pincer bite tolerated. Complete dentition according to the dental formula. The lack of one or two premolars 1 (1PM1 or 2PM1) or of a premolar 2 (1PM2) is tolerated and the molars 3 (M3) are not taken into consideration.
UKC
A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors bite; an even bite is acceptable.

Cheeks

:
FCI
Clean, blending imperceptibly into the sides of the muzzle.

Eyes

:
FCI
Dark brown in colour, small, almond-shaped, neither sunken nor protruding; sharp, lively and mischievous look, black-rimmed eyelids.
KC
Dark brown, more oval than round, not full; bright, most expressive.
UKC
The small, almond-shaped eyes are dark brown, with black eye rims. The expression is lively and mischievous.

Ears

:
FCI
Erect, very small, pointed, triangular (as far as possible equilateral), set high but not too close to each other, firm and extremely mobile.
KC
Moderate length, not too broad at base, tapering to a point. Carried stiffly erect and strong enough not to be bent otherwise than lengthways.
UKC
The small, erect triangular shaped ears are set high but not too close together. They are very mobile.

NECK

:
FCI
Strong, powerfully muscled and appearing very voluminous because of the abundant hair on the ruff, medium length, well-set into shoulders, carried well and higher when dog is alert, upper line being slightly arched.
KC
Strong and full, rather short, set broad on shoulders, slightly arched.
UKC
Medium length and strongly muscled, the neck is slightly arched at the crest and appears very big due to the abundant ruff of hair.

BODY

:
FCI
Short and wide, therefore cobby, but not overbulky or heavy, ideally fitting into a square; its length from point of shoulder to point of buttock is roughly equal to height at withers.
KC
Chest broad and deep in brisket. Back short, straight and strong. Loins powerful, well drawn up from brisket.
UKC
Short, wide and square, with a deep, broad chest and a prominent forechest. The withers are pronounced and the topline slopes gently to the croup, which is broad and appears rounded when viewed from behind. (Known as a Guinea Pig rump). The underline rises gently from the deep chest to the belly, which is only moderately tucked up.

Topline

:
FCI
The topline of the back and loin is straight and firm, often rising slightly from croup to withers.

Withers

:
FCI
Very pronounced and seeming even more so because of the mane.

Back

:
FCI
Short, straight and strong.

Loin

:
FCI
Short, broad and powerful.

Croup

:
FCI
Short, broad and horizontal; the rear section of the croup i.e. the junction between the croup and the point of the buttocks is pleasingly rounded, a shape known as a Guinea pig rump.

Chest

:
FCI
Well let down to the elbows; broad in front and also behind the shoulders, therefore having a good spring of rib. In profile the forechest is prominent.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
The underline of the chest well-let down, reaching the elbows, harmoniously and gently rising towards the belly, which has a moderate tuck-up, neither pendulous nor whippety.

TAIL

:
FCI
Set high. Some dogs are born completely tailless or with a rudimentary or incomplete tail (stumpy or short tail). They should not be penalized for this. At rest a natural tail (reaching at least to the hock), is preferably hanging down and can be raised when the dog is moving, carried in line with the topline, but preferably not higher. A curled tail or a tail carried over the back is accepted.
KC
Previously customarily docked or may be born tailless or with partial length or full tail. Docked: Very short. Naturally tailless – no discernible tail. Undocked: Full length tail tightly curled, carried over the back. Well covered with hair. Fully coated partial length tail permissible but not desirable.
UKC
Customarily docked to no more than one inch in length. If natural, the tail will be broad at the base, tapering to the end, and of various lengths and carriages. The tail may be straight, or curled and carried over the back.

LIMBS

:
FCI
Fine-boned and set well beneath the body.

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
The front legs are upright viewed from all sides and are perfectly parallel when seen from the front; their length from the ground to the elbow equals approximately half the height at the withers.
KC
Shoulders muscular and sloping. Legs perfectly straight, well under the body, bone in proportion to the body.
UKC
The shoulder blades and upper arms are long and sloping, which places the front legs well under the body.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Long and sloping, normal shoulder angulation.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Long and adequately sloping.

Elbow

:
FCI
Strong, neither turning in nor out.

FORELEGS

:
UKC
The forelegs are straight, fine in bone and set rather far apart. Pasterns are short and nearly vertical. The distance from the elbow to the ground is half the height at the withers. Dewclaws may be removed.

Forearm

:
FCI
Straight, quite well-set apart when seen from the front. Carpus (Wrist) Strong and not prominent.

Pastern

:
FCI
Quite short, seen from the front continuing the line of the forearm, in profile at most very slightly sloping.

FEET

:
KC
Small, cat-like, and standing well on the toes.
UKC
Small, round, tight with well-arched toes, and short black nails.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Smal1, round and tight (cat feet), arched toes, short, strong nails, always black.

Hind feet

:
FCI
Like front feet or marginally longer.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
The hindquarters must be placed under the body and be perfectly parallel when viewed from behind.
KC
Lighter compared with forequarters; muscular and well developed thighs, well rounded rump. Legs strong, muscular, hocks well let down.
UKC
The hindquarters are well under the body with broad, strongly muscled thighs.

Thigh

:
FCI
Long, strongly muscled, seeming even wider than they are because of the thickness of the culotte.

Stifle

:
FCI
Approximately in line with the hip; normal angulations.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
Perfectly straight when viewed from behind, with fine bone. Moderate angulation at the stifle and hock joints. Short rear pasterns. Dewclaws should be removed.

Lower thigh

:
FCI
Approximately the same length as the thighs.

Hock

:
FCI
Well angulated, without exaggeration.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
Rather short; dewclaws not desirable.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Movement at the trot is supple and firm with a reasonable reach and good rear thrust, the topline remaining horizontal and the limbs moving parallel; the front movement should be in harmony with the rear movement and the elbows must not turn out. At faster speed the limbs converge.
KC
Short, brisk stride, moving true fore and aft.
UKC
Characteristic gait is firm and supple, with reasonable reach and drive. The topline remains straight. At a slower speed, the legs move parallel to one another. As speed increases, the legs tend to converge.

SKIN

:
FCI
Tight fitting over the whole body.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
The top coat is abundant, thick, straight and sufficiently harsh, with quite firm texture, therefore dry and resistant to the touch, forming an excellent protection together with the soft thick undercoat. Very short hair on the ears, short hair on the head, the front part of the front legs, the hocks and rear pasterns. On the body, the average length hair is close-lying. Around the neck the hair is much longer and more off-standing, beginning at the outer edges of the ears, forming, especial1y in the male but also in the female, a wide and very typical ruff (long hair around the neck, in tufts on each side), a “mane” (long hair on the top of the neck, continuing as far as the withers and the shoulders) and a frill (long hair on the underside of the neck and on the chest, stretching between the forelegs and gradually fading away under the chest). On the back of the thighs long and abundant hair covering the anal region, with tips angled inward in a very typical way, form the culottes. The tail is furnished with hair the same length as that on the body.
KC
Abundant, dense and harsh; smooth on head, ears and legs; lying close on back and side; erect and thick round neck, forming a mane and frill; with good culottes on the back of thighs.
UKC
Double, with a firm, harsh, straight outer coat, and a soft, thick undercoat. The hair on the ears, head, front of the front legs, and rear legs from the hock to the ground is short. On the body, the coat is moderate in length and close lying. On the neck, starting at the outer edges of the ears, the hair is much longer, forming a ruff, frill and mane on the entire neck and chest, continuing between the front legs and then gradually fading away. On the back of the thighs, the hair is long and abundant, forming culottes. The tips of the culottes point inward. The tail is furnished with hair the same as on the body.

COLOUR

:
FCI
Totally black. The undercoat need not be completely black but can also be dark grey provided it is totally hidden by the top coat. A little greying for example on the muzzle due to age is tolerated.
KC
Usually black but other whole colours permissible.
UKC
The Schipperke is a solid black dog. Other solid colors (shades of cream, ivory, wheaten, gold, red, white, blue, and chocolate) do occur and are permissible. However, bi-colored dogs such as black and tan, or dilute colors such as blue-cream, are not solid colors and are eliminating faults.

SIZE

:
KC
Weight about 5.5-7.5 kgs (12-16 lbs).

Weight

:
FCI
Between 3 and 9 kg. An average weight of 4 to 7 kg is sought after.
UKC
Up to 19 pounds.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
General appearance: Cloddy, lacking substance; too long or too short in leg; long body, fitting into a rectangle.
  • Head: Too long or too short. Lines of skull and muzzle not parallel, foxy-faced; too prominent brows or cheek bones. Cranial region: Too narrow, forehead too rounded or domed (apple-headed). Muzzle: Too long, pinched, thick, truncated, convex top line. Teeth: Badly aligned or badly set. Eyes: Large, round or protuberant, light in colour (hazel eyes still acceptable).
  • Body; Chest: Narrow, flat, cylindrical. Not sufficiently let down. Croup: Long, sloping, raised, break in the roundness of the rump (transition from croup to back of thighs).
Limbs: Too little or exaggerated angulation.
Movement: Close-moving, short stride, lacking drive, not keeping correct topline when moving, high stepping front movement, hopping rear movement.
Coat; Hair: Too short (close to body), too long, too thin, soft or silky, wavy, lying too flat to the body or hanging down; too little or no ruff, mane, frill or culotte (more serious a fault in the male, especially a lack of ruff). Not enough undercoat. Colour: Grey, brownish or reddish tones in the top coat and occasionally a few white hairs even on the toes.
Temperament: Apathetic or timid.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
FCI
Teeth: Lack of one incisor (1I), of three premolars 1 (3 PM1) or two premolars 2 (2 PM2).
UKC

Muzzle: Lips lacking in black pigment.
Teeth: Undershot or overshot bite.
Eyes: Eye rims lacking in black pigmentation.
Nose: Nose lacking in black pigmentation.
Ears: Any ear carriage other than erect.
Coat: Coat that is overly long, soft or silky. Lack of the characteristic coat pattern. Fringes of hair on the ears. Total lack of undercoat.
Weight: Clearly over the prescribed weight.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Lack of breed type.
Over- or undershot jaw, even without loss of contact (reverse scissors bite) wry mouth, lack of one canine (1 C), of one upper carnassial (1PM4) or one lower carnassial (1M1) of one molar (1M1 or 1M2 but not any M3), of one premolar 4 (lower PM4), of one premolar 3 (1PM3) as we1l as another tooth or in total 4 missing teeth or more (excluding the four premolars 1).
Lack of pigment on nose, lips and eyelids.
Ears Falling or semi-erect.
Coat which is long, soft or silky, i.e. an obviously “long-haired” type of coat; fringes of long hair on the ears; behind the limbs etc.; total lack of undercoat.
Colour Topcoat of any other colour than black (except grey, brownish or reddish tones) or with tiny white spots, even on the toes.
Weight Clearly outside the designated limits.
UKC

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Any white markings. Albinism.
Color: Any white markings. Albinism.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.