Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Samoyed

(Samoiedskaïa Sabaka)

Samoyed

Samoyed


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Northern Russia and Siberia.

PATRONAGE

:
FCI
Nordic Kennel Union (NKU).

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
22.07.1997.
KC
March 1994

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Sledge- and companion dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 5Spitz and primitive types
Section 1Nordic Sledge Dogs
Without working trial

KC
Pastoral
UKC
Northern Breed

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
The name Samoyed derives from the Samoyed Tribes in Northern Russia and Siberia. In Southern parts of the area they used white, black and brown parti-coloured dogs as reindeer herders ; in the northern parts the dogs were pure white, had a mild temperament and were used as hunting- and sledge dogs. The Samoyed dogs lived close to their owners, they even slept within the shelters and were used as heaters. The British zoologist Ernest Kilburn Scott spent three months among Samoyed Tribes in 1889. Returning to England he brought with him a brown male puppy called « Sabarka ». Later he imported a cream coloured bitch called « Whitey Petchora » from the western side of the Urals and a snow white male called « Musti » from Siberia. These few dogs and those brought by the explorers are the base for the western Samoyed. The first standard was written in England in 1909.
UKC
This member of the Spitz family takes its name from the Samoyed people, a nomadic tribe whose survival in the harsh Siberian tundra depended on their hardy white dogs. Samoyed dogs were used to hunt, herd reindeer, and haul sledges. Living in close proximity to their owners, the Samoyed dogs were noted for their gentle good nature. Polar explorers discovered this versatile breed and began importing them to England just prior to and during World War I. English aristocracy adopted the friendly white Samoyed with enthusiasm and, in turn, introduced the breed to the United States. The Samoyed was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1927.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
Medium in size, elegant, a white Arctic Spitz. In appearence gives the impression of power, endurance, charm, suppleness, dignity and self-confidence.
The expression, the so called « Samoyed Smile », is made up of a combination of eye shape and position, and the slightly curved up corners of the mouth. The sex should be clearly stamped.
KC
Most striking. Medium and well balanced. Strong, active and graceful, free from coarseness but capable of great endurance.
UKC
The Samoyed is a medium-sized Spitz-type dog with a wedge-shaped head, prick ears, and a profuse white or biscuit-colored double coat. The corners of the mouth are turned up slightly, giving the impression that the dog is smiling. The body is slightly longer than tall, and legs are somewhat long and moderately well boned. The tail is moderately long, covered with long hair, and normally carried over the back, draped to one side or the other. Gender differences in this breed are very apparent. Typically, males carry a heavier "ruff" on the neck, while females may be slightly longer in body. The Samoyed is a working dog, capable of a variety of tasks. Deviations from the standard are to be penalized to the degree they affect the dog's versatility and agility.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI
The length of the body is approximately 5% more than the height at the withers. The depth of the body is slightly less than the half of the height at the withers. The muzzle is approximately as long as the skull.
KC
Intelligent, alert, full of action. ‘Smiling expression’.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Friendly, open, alert and lively. The hunting instinct is very slight. Never shy nor aggressive. Very social and cannot be used as guard dog.
KC
Displays affection to all mankind. Unprovoked nervousness or aggression highly undesirable.
UKC
The Samoyed is affectionate, gentle, intelligent and adaptable. They are trusting and eager to please. They are extremely sociable and live very easily with children and other dogs. Samoyeds require lots of interaction with their owners. They are lively and mischievous, even into old age. The Samoyed's characteristic good nature, combined with his white color and "smiling" appearance, has contributed to the steady popularity of this breed.

HEAD

:
FCI
Powerful and wedge-shaped.
KC
Head powerful, wedge-shaped, with broad, flat skull, muzzle medium length, tapering foreface not too sharply defined. Lips black. Hair short and smooth before ears. Nose black for preference, but may be brown or flesh-coloured.
UKC
The head is proportional to the size of the body. From the front, the head forms a medium-length wedge. Viewed from above, the broad skull tapers very distinctly toward the place where the muzzle joins it and then tapers slightly from the base of the muzzle toward the nose. The skull and muzzle are roughly parallel to one another when viewed from the side, and joined by a well-defined, but not abrupt, stop. The Samoyed has a characteristic expression that is an essential element of breed type. It is made up of the correct combination of eye color and placement, ear shape and erect carriage, and the upturned corners of the tight, dark lips.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Viewed from the front and in profile only slightly convex. Broadest between the ears. Slightly visible furrow between the eyes.
UKC
The skull is broad, wedge-shaped, and slightly domed. Lines drawn between the inner corners of the ears and the central point of the stop form an equilateral triangle.

Stop

:
FCI
Clearly defined but not too prominent.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Well developed, preferably black. During some periods of the year the pigment of the nose can fade to a so called « winter nose » ; there must however always be dark pigment at the edges of the nose.
UKC
Black is preferred, but a brown, liver, or Dudley nose is acceptable. Changes in nose color due to age or weather are not penalized.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Strong and deep, approximately as long as the skull, gradually tapering towards the nose, neither snipey nor heavy and square. The bridge of the nose is straight.
KC
Jaws strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
UKC
The muzzle is proportionate to the size of the dog and the width of the skull. The muzzle is deep and of moderate length and width. Viewed from the front, the muzzle is well filled in under the eyes, and there is slight tapering toward the nose. Lips are preferably black and tightly closed, with a slight curve upward at the corners of the mouth. This "Samoyed smile" is an essential characteristic of the breed. Whiskers are not trimmed.

Lips

:
FCI
Close fitting, black and rather full. The corners of the mouth are slightly curved forming the characteristic « Samoyed Smile ».

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Regular and complete scissor bite. The teeth and the jaws are strong. Normal dentition.
UKC
The Samoyed has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth with a scissors bite.

Eyes

:
FCI
Dark brown in colour, well-set in the sockets, placed rather apart, somewhat slanting and almond-shaped. The expression is « smiling », kind, alert and intelligent. The eyerims are black.
KC
Almond-shaped, set slanted, medium to dark brown, set well apart with alert, intelligent expression. Eye rims unbroken black. Light or black eyes undesirable.
UKC
Shape of the eyes is very important to establish correct Samoyed expression. The eyes are dark brown, almond-shaped, and set obliquely and wide apart. Eye rims are tight and darkly pigmented.

Ears

:
FCI
Erect, rather small, thick, triangular and slightly rounded at the tips. They should be mobile, set high ; due to the broad skull well apart.
KC
Thick, not too long, slightly rounded at tips, set well apart and well covered inside with hair. Fully erect in adults.
UKC
Ears are proportionate to the size of the head and are carried strongly erect. They are triangular in shape, slightly rounded at the tips, and set well apart, but not extending beyond a line drawn upward from the outer edge of the skull. The length of the ear from base to tip is equal to the length of a line drawn from the inner base of the ear to the outer corner of the eye. Ears are highly mobile and expressive. Hair covers the inside and outside of the ears. The hair in front of the ears is full and stands away from the head.

NECK

:
FCI
Strong and of medium length with a proud carriage.
KC
Strong, not too short, and proudly arched.
UKC
The neck is moderately long, but strong and well muscled, blending into sloping shoulders with a graceful arch. The neck is free of throatiness and covered with a thick ruff of hair.

BODY

:
FCI
Slightly longer than the height at the withers, deep and compact but supple.
KC
Back medium in length, broad and very muscular with exceptionally strong loin. Chest deep but not too broad, well sprung deep ribs, giving plenty of heart and lung room.
UKC
The Samoyed is about five percent longer, measured from prosternum to point of buttocks, than tall, measured from the withers to the ground. Females may be slightly longer. The withers are the highest points of the backline and blend gracefully into the level back. The loin is very muscular, slightly arched, and of sufficient length to allow for easy movement and powerful drive from the rear. The belly is tight, with moderate tuck-up. The croup is full and slightly sloping. The ribs are well sprung from the spine and then flatten to allow free movement of the front legs. The first four ribs are somewhat flatter at the top than the rest of the rib cage, to allow free movement of the shoulder blade. The body is deep, extending at least to the elbows, with the deepest part just behind the forelegs.

Withers

:
FCI
Clearly defined.

Back

:
FCI
Of medium length, muscular and straight ; in females slightly longer than in males.

Loin

:
FCI
Short, very strong and defined.

Croup

:
FCI
Full, strong, muscular and slightly sloping.

Chest

:
FCI
Broad, deep and long, reaching almost to the elbows. The ribs are well sprung.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Moderate tuck-up.

TAIL

:
FCI
Set rather high. When the dog is alert and in motion the tail is carried bent from the root forward over the back or side, but may be hanging at rest, then reaching to the hocks.
KC
Long, profusely coated, carried over the back and to side when alert, sometimes dropped when at rest.
UKC
The tail is set neither high nor low, and of moderate length, reaching about to the hock when straightened out. When the dog is alert or moving, the tail is carried forward over the back or draped to the side, but loosely and without any loss of mobility. When the dog is relaxed, the tail may hang down between the legs. The tail is covered with profuse feathering. When judging the Samoyed, the judge must see the tail over the back at least once.

LIMBS

:

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
Well placed and muscular with strong bones. Viewed from the front straight and parallel.
KC
Shoulders well laid, legs straight and muscular with good bone and not too short.
UKC
The shoulders are long and well laid back, with good angulation and well-developed muscles. The shoulder blade and the upper arm are roughly equal in length. The upper arm lies close to the ribs with the elbow moving close to the body.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Long, firm and sloping.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Oblique and close to the body. Approximately as long as the shoulder.

Elbow

:
FCI
Close to the body.

FORELEGS

:
UKC
The forelegs are moderately well boned, straight and muscular, with moderately short, moderately sloping, flexible pasterns. The length of leg from elbow to ground should be approximately 55 percent of the dog's height at the withers. The space between the tips of the shoulder blades is approximately 1 to 1½ inches.

Carpus (wrist)

:
FCI
Strong but supple.

Pastern

:
FCI
Slightly oblique.

FEET

:
KC
Long, flattish, slightly spread and well feathered. Soles well cushioned with hair. Round cat feet highly undesirable.
UKC
Feet are large, long, and somewhat flat. Toes are arched and slightly spread but not splayed. Pads are thick and tough with a protective growth of hair between the toes. Feathering on feet may be more profuse on females than males.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Oval with long toes, flexible and pointing straight forward. Toes arched and not too tightly knit. Elastics pads.

Hind feet

:
FCI
As front feet. The dewclaws should be removed.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
Viewed from behind straight and parallel with very strong muscles.
KC
Very muscular, stifles well angulated. Viewed from rear, legs straight and parallel, with well let down hocks. Cowhocks or straight stifles highly undesirable.
UKC
The thighs are strong and muscular.

Thigh

:
FCI
Of medium length, rather broad and muscular.

Stifle

:
FCI
Well angulated.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
The rear legs are well angulated at stifle and hock joints. The hocks are well let down. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns should be parallel to each other; from the side, they should be perpendicular to the ground.

Hock

:
FCI
Rather low and well angulated.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
Short, strong, vertical and parallel.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Powerful, free and tireless in appearance with long stride. Good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters.
KC
Moves freely with strong, agile drive, showing power and elegance.
UKC
When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive behind. The backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward centerline of balance. Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the Samoyed's ability to perform the tasks it was bred to do.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
Profuse, thick, flexible and dense polar coat. The Samoyed is a double coated dog with short, soft and dense undercoat and longer, more harsh and straight outer coat. The coat should form a ruff around the neck and shoulders framing the head, especially in males. On head and on front of legs, hair is short and smooth ; on outside of ears short, standing off and smooth. Inside the ears should be well furred. On back of the thighs the hair forms trousers. There should be a protective growth of hair between the toes. The tail should be profusely covered with hair. The coat of the female is often shorter and softer in texture than that of the male. The correct coat texture should always have a special glistening sheen.
KC
Body should be well covered with thick, close, soft and short undercoat, with harsh but not wiry hair growing through it, forming weather-resistant outer coat, which should stand straight away from body and be free from curl.
UKC
The profuse, dense, double coat of the Samoyed was essential to this breed's ability to live and work in the harshest arctic environment. The outer coat is long, straight and coarse, standing away from the body, while the undercoat is short, dense, and soft. The hair on the neck and shoulders forms a protective ruff. Males generally carry longer, harsher coats than females and a more profuse ruff. A coat of the correct weather-resistant texture glistens with a silver sheen. The weather-resistant quality of the coat is more important than quantity of coat when evaluating this breed. Hair on the skull and the front parts of the legs is shorter than the body coat. Hair on the brisket, backs of thighs, and tail is longer.

COLOUR

:
FCI
Pure white, cream or white with biscuit. (The basic colour to be white with a few biscuit markings.) Should never give the impression of being pale brown.
KC
Pure white, white and biscuit, cream, outer coat silver tipped.
UKC
Pure white, white and biscuit, cream, or all biscuit.

SIZE

:
KC
Height: dogs: 51-56 cms (20-22 ins) at shoulder; bitches: 46-51 cms (18-20 ins) at shoulder. Weight in proportion to size.
UKC
Desirable height for a mature male Samoyed is 21 to 23½ inches. Desirable height for a mature female Samoyed is 19 to 21 inches. Deviation from the desirable heights should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. The bone of a Samoyed is heavier than might be expected in a dog of this size but is not so massive as to reduce the dog's speed or agility. The Samoyed should never be so heavy as to appear clumsy or so light as to appear racy. Weight should be in proportion to height and in accordance with these principles.

Height at withers

:
FCI
Ideal height male 57 cm with a tolerance of ± 3 cm and females 53 cm with a tolerance of ± 3 cm.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Visible faults in structure.
Light bone.
Males not masculine and females not feminine.
Pincer bite.
Yellow eyes.
Soft ears.
Barrel ribcage.
Double twisted tail.
Low on the legs.
Badly bow-legged or cow hocked.
Wavy or short coated throughout, long, soft or coat hanging down.
Aloofness.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
UKC

Skull: Round or apple head.
Muzzle: Coarse, snipey, or shallow muzzle; thick or pendulous lips.
Teeth: Undershot or overshot.
Eyes: Round or protruding eyes.
Ears: Ears too large or too small; "bear-like" ears; pointed ears.
Forelegs: Very short legs; out at shoulders or elbows; straight or broken-down pasterns.
Body: Barrel chest; body too long or too short-coupled.
Hind Legs: Straight stifles; cowhocks; double-jointedness.
Feet: Toeing in or out; round or cat foot; splayed feet.
Tail: Double hook tail; tail snapped tightly to the back; tail set too high or too low.
Coat: Droopy coat.
Gait: Choppy or stilted gait; pacing.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
FCI
Clearly unpigmented areas on eyerims or lips.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Eyes blue or of different colours.
  • Overshot or undershot bite.
  • Ears not erect.
Coat colour other than permitted in the standard.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
UKC

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Any color other than pure white, cream, biscuit, or white and biscuit. Albinism. Blue eyes.
Eyes: Blue eyes.
Color: Any color other than those listed.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.