Fédération Cynologique Internationale
The Kennel Club
United Kennel Club
|Group 9||Companion and Toy Dogs|
|Without working trial|
Jennifer Mulholland, in collaboration with Raymond Triquet.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
Etymologically, the French word “caniche” (Poodle) comes from “cane”, the French word for a female duck. In other countries, the name of the breed is associated with splashing around in water. Originally, this dog was used for wildfowling. It descends from the Barbet of which it has conserved many characteristics. In 1743, it was called the “caniche” the female of the barbet in French. Thereafter the Barbet and the Caniche (Poodle) were gradually separated. Breeders worked hard to obtain original subjects of uniform colour. The Poodle became very popular as a companion dog because of its friendly, joyful and loyal character and also because of its four sizes and different colours which everyone can choose according to preference.
Dogs similar in type to today’s Poodle were carved in Roman tombs as far back as 30 A.D. and can be seen in European paintings as early as the 15th century. Although the breed took its name from the German word “pudel,” which means “to splash in water,” the French were responsible for bringing the Poodle to international attention. The first Poodles in England were known as “Rough Water Dogs” and they served primarily as hunting companions. Poodles were first brought to the United States at the end of the 19th century, but the breed did not become popular until after World War II. By the mid ‘50s, the Poodle was the most popular breed in the United States, a position held for over 20 years. Today the Poodle is divided into two breeds: the Standard Poodle, which serves primarily as a gun dog and companion animal, and the Poodle, composed of the Miniature and Toy varieties, and which serves primarily as companion breed. The standards of the two breeds are essentially identical but for size.
The Poodle was recognized by United Kennel Club in 1914. The Poodle was divided into two breeds, Standard Poodle and Poodle, on January 1, 2000.
Dog of medium proportions, with a characteristic frizzy coat which is either curly or corded. The appearance is that of an intelligent dog, constantly alert and active, harmoniously built, giving an impression of elegance and pride.
Well balanced, elegant looking with very proud carriage.
The Standard Poodle is a medium-sized, squarely built dog with a distinctive harsh curly coat that may be presented in any of several traditional Poodle clips or corded. The ears are long, drop, and densely feathered. The tail is normally docked, set high, and carried erect. The length of body (sternum to point of buttocks) is equal to the height (withers to ground). The Standard Poodle carries himself with an air of dignity and pride. The Standard Poodle should be evaluated as a working gun dog and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog’s ability to work.
Working dogs are not to be penalized under any conditions for scars or blemishes that are due to hunting injuries.
The length of the muzzle is approximately 9/10ths of that of the skull.
The length of the body (scapular ischial) is slightly superior to the height at withers.
The height at withers is practically equal to the height at the croup.
The height at the elbow is 5/9ths of the height at withers.
Distinguished by a special type of clip for show activity and by a type of coat which does not moult.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:
A dog renowned for its loyalty, capable of learning and being trained thus making it a particularly pleasant companion dog.
Gay-spirited and good-tempered.
The Standard Poodle’s most readily identifiable characteristic is its harsh, dense coat, which is presented in various traditional trims or, less frequently, corded. Another essential characteristic is proper temperament. The breed is noted for its high intelligence, trainability and sense of humor. Poodles are highly social and require human companionship and regular, close interaction with family members. Because of their great intelligence and the joy they take in human companionship, Poodles excel in performance events of all sorts. They are extremely affectionate with children.
Distinguished, rectilinear and in proportion to the body. The head must be well chiselled and neither heavy nor excessively fine.
Long and fine with slight peak. Skull not broad, moderate stop. Foreface strong, well chiselled, not falling away under eyes; cheek bones and muscle flat. Lips tight-fitting. Chin well defined but not protruding. Head in proportion to size of dog.
The head is proportionate to the size of the dog. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are roughly parallel to one another and joined by a slight but definite stop.
Frontal furrow: Wide between the eyes, narrowing towards the occiput ,which is very pronounced. (In Miniatures it can be slightly less pronounced).
Its width is less than half the length of the head. The entire skull, seen from above, appears oval and seen from the side slightly convex. The axes of skull and muzzle are slightly divergent.
Superciliary arches: Moderately pronounced and covered with long hair.
The skull is long and moderately rounded on top. Cheeks are clean and flat.
Only slightly pronounced.
Developed, vertical profile; open nostrils. Black nose in black, white and grey subjects; brown nose in brown subjects. In orange fawn (apricot) or red fawn subjects the nose is brown or black.
Nose leather is liver for dogs with brown or café-au-lait coat color. Dogs with coats of all other colors must have black pigment, except that dogs with apricot coats may have liver nose pigment but it is not preferred.
Upper profile is perfectly straight; its length is approximately 9/10ths of that of the skull. The branches of the lower jaw are almost parallel. The muzzle is strong.
The lower profile of the muzzle is determined by the lower jaw and not by the edge of the upper lip.
Jaws strong with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. A full set of 42 teeth is desirable.
In profile, the muzzle is straight and roughly equal in length to the length of the skull, measured from stop to occiput. The muzzle is fine with a slight chiseling under the eyes but with sufficient depth of underjaw to prevent snipiness. Lips are tight with black or liver pigment appropriate to coat color.
Moderately developed, rather tight, of medium thickness with the upper lip resting on the lower lip without hanging over it. Black in black, white and grey subjects; brown in brown subjects. In orange fawn (apricot) and red fawn subjects, the lips are more or less dark brown or black. The corner of the lips must not be pronounced.
Scissor bite. Strong teeth.
The Standard Poodle has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite.
Not prominent, shaped on the bones. The sub-orbital regions are chiselled and very slightly filled. Zygomatic arches very slightly pronounced.
Keen expression, placed at the level of the stop and slightly oblique. Almond shaped. Black or dark brown colour. In brown subjects the colour may be dark amber.
Eyelids: The rims are black in black, white and grey subjects. In orange fawn (apricot) or red fawn subjects they may be brown or black.
Almond-shaped, dark, not set too close together, full of fire and intelligence. Eye colour see Colour Clause.
Eyes are oval in shape and set sufficiently wide apart to give an alert, intelligent expression. Eyes are dark brown in dogs with black pigment, and range from dark brown to dark amber for dogs with liver pigment.
Rather long, falling along the cheeks, set on in the prolongation of a line going from the top of the nose and passing under the outer corner of the eye; flat, widening after the attachment and rounded at the tip, they are covered with very long, wavy hair. The leather should reach the corner of the lips.
Leathers long and wide, set low, hanging close to face.
Ears are drop with long, wide, densely-feathered ear leather. Ears are set at or slightly below eye level and hang close to the head.
Strong ,slightly arched after the nape, of medium length and well porportioned. The head is carried high and proudly. The neck, without dewlap, is of oval cross section. Its length is slightly less than that of the head.
Well proportioned, of good length and strong to admit of the head being carried high and with dignity. Skin fitting tightly at the throat.
The neck is of sufficient length and strength to permit the head to be carried high when standing or moving. The neck blends smoothly into well-laid-back shoulders. The skin on the neck and throat is tight.
Well porprotioned. The length is slightly superior to height at withers.
Chest deep and moderately wide. Ribs well sprung and rounded. Back short, strong, slightly hollowed; loins broad and muscular.
A properly proportioned Standard Poodle is square, with the length of body (measured from prosternum to point of buttocks) equal to height (measured from the withers to the ground). The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is just slightly longer than half the dog’s height. The line of the back drops off almost imperceptibly behind the withers and is then level. The loin is short, broad and muscular with moderate tuck-up. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung out from the spine, then curving down and inward to form a deep body. The brisket extends to the elbow. Viewed from the front, the chest is well filled and moderately wide.
Short. Topline harmonious and taut. The height at withers is practically equal to the height from the top of the croup to the ground.
Firm and muscled.
Rounded but not falling away.
Forechest: The point of the sternum should be slightly prominent and set rather high.
Chest: Reaching the elbow; its width is equal to 2/3 of depth. In Standard Poodles, the perimeter of the thorax, measured behind the shoulders, should be superior by 10 cms to the height at withers. Oval cross section, broad at dorsal part.
Underline and belly:
Tucked up but not excessively so.
Set on quite high at the level of the loin. It can be either natural or docked by 1/3 closest to the body or by 1/2 of its length in countries where tail docking is not forbidden. When standing the tail is low; in action it is raised obliquely.
Previously customarily docked.Docked: set on rather high, carried at slight angle away from the body, never curled or carried over back, thick at root.Undocked: Thick at root, set on rather high, carried away from the body and as straight as possible.
The tail is straight, set high, and customarily docked to a length proportionate to the size of the dog. Whether standing or moving, the tail is carried erect.
Perfectly upright and parallel, well muscled with good bone. The height from the elbow to the ground is slightly more than half the height at withers.
Well laid back shoulders, strong and muscular. Legs set straight from shoulders, well muscled.
Shoulders are smoothly muscled. The shoulder blades are long and well laid back. The upper arm appears to be equal in length to that of the shoulder blade and joins it at an apparent right angle. Elbows are close to the body. The forelegs are straight with bone and muscle proportionate to the size of the dog. Pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are parallel. Viewed from the side, the point of elbow is directly below the withers.
Sloping, muscular. The shoulder blade forms an angle of approximately 110° to the humerus.
The length of the humerus corresponds to that of the shoulder blade.
In continuous line with front of forearm.
Strong and almost upright seen in profile.
Tight, proportionately small, oval in shape, turning neither in nor out, toes arched, pads thick and hard, well cushioned. Pasterns strong.
Good feet are essential for a working gun dog. The feet are relatively small, oval in shape and compact with well-arched toes and thick, elastic pads. Feet do not turn in or out. Nails are short and dark or self-colored, depending on coat color. Dewclaws may be removed.
Rather small, firm, of short oval shape. Toes are well arched and tight fitting. The pads are hard and thick. The nails are black in black and grey subjects. They are black or brown in brown subjects. In whites the nails may be any colour in the range from horn colour to black. In the orange fawns and red fawns they are brown or black.
See front feet.
Hind legs parallel seen from behind; muscles developed and very apparent. The hock joint is relatively well angulated; the coxal-femoral, tibial-femoral and tibial-tarsal angles should be pronounced.
Thighs well developed and muscular; well bent stifles, hocks well let down; hindlegs turning neither in nor out.
Hindquarters are muscular and with broad second thighs. The angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the angulation of the forequarters. The stifles are well bent and the hocks are well let down. When the dog is standing, the short, strong rear pasterns are perpendicular to the ground and, viewed from the rear, parallel to each other. In profile, the croup is nearly flat.
Well muscled and strong.
Rather short and upright. The Poodle should be born without dewclaws on the hind legs.
GAIT / MOVEMENT:
The Poodle has a light and springy gait.
Sound, free and light movement essential with plenty of drive.
When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive behind. Action is light and springy with head and tail carried up. Poor movement should be penalized to the degree that it reduces the Standard Poodle’s ability to perform the tasks it was bred to do.
Supple, not loose, pigmented. Black, brown, grey and orange fawn or red fawn Poodles must be pigmented in accordance with the colour of their coat. In white Poodles, a silver coloured skin is sought after.
Curly Coats: Profuse of fine, woolly texture, very frizzy, elastic and resistant to pressure of the hand. It should be thick, well furnished, of equal length and form even curls.
Corded Coats: Profuse of fine, woolly texture and dense, forming characteristic cords which should measure at least 20 cm.
Very profuse and dense of good harsh texture. All short hair close, thick and curly. All traditional trims permissible in the show ring and the dogs judged on equal merit, as long as there is sufficient length to demonstrate colour and quality of coat.
The Standard Poodle has harsh, dense, curly coat. For conformation exhibition, the coat may be presented naturally, corded, or in one of the traditional clips described below. Quality is never to be sacrificed in favor of the type of clip in which a dog is presented.
Corded: The cords are tight and of even diameter but varying lengths. Cords may be longer on the mane, body coat, head and ears; shorter on puffs, bracelets and pompons.
Clips: In all of the traditional clips described below, the hair on the topskull may be left free or held in place by elastic bands, which may not be used elsewhere in the coat.
Puppy: The coat is long with the face, throat, feet and base of the tail shaved. A pompon shall be left on the end of the tail. The coat may be shaped to give a neat appearance.
English Saddle: The face, throat, feet, forelegs and base of tail are shaved, leaving puffs on the forelegs and a pompon on end of the tail. The hindquarters are covered with a short blanket of hair except for a curved shaved area on each flank. Each rear leg is circled by two shaved bands, one just above the stifle and one just above the hock joint. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped for balance.
Continental: Face, throat, feet and base of tail are shaved. Hindquarters are shaved with pompons on the hips optional. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. Legs are shaved leaving bracelets on the rear legs and puffs on the forelegs. A portion of the foreleg is shaved above the puff. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped for balance.
Sporting: Face, feet, throat and base of tail are shaved. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. Coat on the top of the head is scissored into a cap. The rest of the body and legs are trimmed following the outline of the dog. The body coat shall be no longer than 1 inch in length. Leg hair may be slightly longer.
Solid colour black, white, brown, grey, orange fawn (apricot) and red fawn.
Brown: Should be deep, rather dark, uniform and warm. Beige and its paler derivatives are not admitted.
Grey: Must be uniform, deep, neither blackish nor whitish.
Orange fawn: Must be uniform without tending to pale fawn, cream or red fawn.
Red fawn: Must be uniform over the entire body. It must never tend to orange fawn.
Eyelids, nose, lips, gums, palate, natural orifices, scrotum and pads are well pigmented.
All solid colours. White and creams to have black nose, lips and eye rims, black toenails desirable. Browns to have dark amber eyes, dark liver nose, lips, eye rims and toenails. Apricots and reds to have dark eyes with black points or deep amber eyes with liver points. Blacks, silvers and blues to have black nose, lips, eye rims and toenails. Creams, apricots, reds, browns, silvers and blues may show varying shades of the same colour up to 18 months. Clear colours preferred. Non solid colours are highly undesirable and should be heavily penalised.
Acceptable colors for the Standard Poodle are apricot, black, blue, cream, gray, silver, white, red, silver beige and all shades of brown, including café-au-lait. Dogs whose coats are of the brown shades may have dark amber eyes; liver noses, eye rims and lips; and dark nails. Dogs with apricot coat color may have this combination of eye, pigment and nail color as well but it is not desirable. All others must have very dark eyes; black noses, eye rims and lips; and black or self-colored nails. Coat color is solid and even. Clear colors are preferred but natural variations in the shading of the coat are not to be considered a fault.
Poodles (Standard): over 38 cms (15 ins). Poodles (Miniature): height at shoulder should be under 38 cms (15 ins) but not under 28 cms (11 ins). Poodles (Toy): height at shoulder should be under 28 cms (11 ins).
Height at withers:
Standard Poodles: Over 45cm up to 60cm with a tolerance of +2cm. The Standard Poodle must be the enlarged and developed replica of the Medium Poodle of which it retains the same characteristics.
Medium Poodles: Over 35 cm up to 45cm.
Miniature Poodles: Over 28cm up to 35cm. The Miniature Poodle must display the apprearance of a reduced Medium Poodle, retaining as much as possible the same proportions and without presenting any sign of dwarfism.
Toy Poodles: Over 24 cm up to 28 cm (sought after ideal 25cm) (with a tolerance of -1cm). The Toy Poodle maintains, in its ensemble, the aspect of a Miniature Poodle and the same general proportions complying with all the points of the standard. Any sign of dwarfism is excluded; only the occipital protuberance may be less pronounced.
Over 15 inches, measured at the withers.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Roach or sway back.
Tail set on too low.
Too restless subject.
Absence of 2PM1 is not taken into account.
Absence of one or two PM2, if symmetrical.
Absence of M3 is not taken into account.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
Ears: Excessively long ear fringe.
Partially depigmented nose.
Arched bridge of nose.
- Teeth Absence of two PM2 if not symmetrical.
Eyes too big or sunken, not dark enough.
Ears too short.
Croup falling away.
Tail curved over the back.
Rear anuglations too straight.
Flowing or extended gait.
Sparse, soft or harsh hair.
Colour not clearly defined or not uniform blackish grey or whitish grey, washed out fawn, cream, beige in browns or very dark brown.
Muzzle: Lip pigment incomplete or of wrong color for color of coat; weak underjaw.
Teeth: Overshot, undershot, wry mouth.
Nose: Nose pigment incomplete or of wrong color for color of coat.
Eyes: Round, protruding, large or very light eyes; eye and eye rim colors wrong for color of coat; eye rim pigment incomplete.
Neck: Ewe neck
Forequarters: Upright shoulders.
Feet: Thin pads, splay foot.
Tail: Low tail set, tail curled or carried over the back.
Aggressive or overly shy.
Nose completely depigmented.
Lack of type, particularly in head.
Overshot or undershot.
Absence of 1 incisor or 1 canine or 1 carnassial (P4 upper jaw, M1 lower jaw).
Absence of one PM3 or of one PM4
Absence of three or more PM (except PM1)
Absence of tail or naturally short tail.
Dewclaws or evidence of dewclaws on rear limbs.
Coat which is not solid colour.
White hairs on feet.
Height exceeding 62cm in Standards and inferior to 23cm in Toys.
Any subject displaying signs of dwarfism, globulous skull, absence of occipital protuberance, very pronounced stop, prominent eyes muzzle too short and turned up, receding chin.
Median furrow practically inexistant.
Very light bone in Toys.
Tail curled with the tip falling over the flank or the croup.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
N.B. Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid.
Viciousness or extreme shyness.
Any color other than described above.
Blue eyes, or any variation of, including flecks and marbling.
Appearance: Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid.
Characteristics: Viciousness or extreme shyness.
Ears: Blue eyes, or any variation of, including flecks and marbling.
Color: Any color other than described above; albinism. Merle Coloring.
Size: 15 inches or under in height.
Note: The docking of tails and cropping of ears in America is legal and remains a personal choice. However, as an international registry, the United Kennel Club, Inc. is aware that the practices of cropping and docking have been forbidden in some countries. In light of these developments, the United Kennel Club, Inc. feels that no dog in any UKC event, including conformation, shall be penalized for a full tail or natural ears.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.