Fédération Cynologique Internationale

United Kennel Club

Peruvian Hairless Dog

(Perro Sin Pelo del Perú)

Peruvian Inca Orchid


ORIGIN

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FCI
Peru.

PUBLISHED

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FCI
08.10.2012.

UTILISATION

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FCI
Companion dog.

CLASSIFICATION

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FCI
Group 5Spitz and primitive types
Section 6Primitive type
Without working trial

UKC
Sighthound/Pariah

TRANSLATION

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FCI
Brígida Nestler. Technical Supervision Miguel Ángel Martínez.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

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FCI
The Peruvian hairless dog, because of its particular nature, was the subject of obvious curiosity by the Peruvians from different times. Because of the allocation of different properties, they are seen on ceramics of different cultures pre-Incas like Vicus, Mochica, Chancay, Chancay with Tiahuanaco influence, Chimu and others where in many cases the hairless dog has replaced the puma, the snake or the hawk, standing with the greatest interest in the Chancay culture. As seen in these illustrations, the hairless dog makes its appearance in the archaeological periods of Pre-Inca times, from 300 BC until 1460 AD.
UKC
The Peruvian Inca Orchid is an ancient breed, thought to have been in existence since A.D 750. When the Spanish conquered Peru, these hairless dogs were found in the Inca homes amidst the Orchids, therefore the Spanish named them “Perros Flora”, or “flower dog”. Little has changed about the breed since it was first discovered. The Peruvian Inca Orchid was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1996.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

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FCI
Going by his general conformation, it is an elegant and slim dog, whose aspect expresses speed, strength and harmony without ever appearing coarse. There are two varieties, the hairless whose main feature is the absence of hair all over the body and the coated variety, that is entirely coated.
Another particular feature is that the dentition in the hairless variety is nearly always incomplete associated with the congenital alopecia.
UKC
The Peruvian Inca Orchid is a medium-sized, elegant Sighthound breed. They give the appearance of speed, strength and stamina, with no trace of coarseness. They are square in proportion, though females may be slightly longer in body, with good length of leg. The hairless and the coated dogs are identical except for ear carriage, and they can be born in the same litter. The breed comes in many skin and coat color combinations.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

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FCI
The ratio between the height at the withers and the length of the body is 1 1; the females can be slightly longer than the males.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

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FCI
Noble and affectionate at home with those close to him, at the same time lively and alert; he might be wary of strangers and is a good watch dog.
UKC
The breed is lively and alert; and when mature they are calm and quiet. Intelligent, independent thinkers, they make excellent guard and watchdogs, as they are wary of strangers but devoted to their owners.

HEAD

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FCI
Of lupoid conformation.
UKC
The head is broad between the ears and tapers towards the nose. The toplines of the skull and muzzle are parallel. There is a barely perceptible stop.

CRANIAL REGION

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Skull

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FCI
Mesocephalic. Orthoid, i.e. the upper axes of the skull and muzzle are parallel; a slight divergence is accepted. Seen from above, the skull is broad and the head tapers toward the nose. The superciliary arches are moderately developed. The occipital protuberance is barely marked.
UKC
The skull is slightly rounded, with no prominence of occiput.

Stop

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FCI
Slightly marked (approximately 140°).

FACIAL REGION

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Nose

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FCI
Good pigmentation, the colour of the nose must be in harmony with the different colours of the skin; in the different shades in the hairless variety and with the colour of the hair in the coated variety.
UKC
Nose color harmonizes with coat color, black in the darker colored dogs, and self-colored in the lighter colored dogs. Complete pigment is preferred.

Muzzle

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FCI
Seen in profile, the nasal bridge is straight.
UKC
The muzzle is equal in length to that of the skull, with a straight nasal bone. The lips are very tight and clean.

Lips

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FCI
They must be as tight as possible and close to the gums.

Jaws/Teeth

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FCI
The incisors should fit in scissor bite. In the hairless variety the absence of one or more teeth is accepted. In the coated variety the dentition must be complete with teeth normally developed and in a normal position. The jaw is not strongly developed.
UKC
The Peruvian Inca Orchid has a scissors or level bite, and normally developed canine teeth. Missing teeth in the hairless dogs should not be penalized. The coated variety should have full dentition.

Cheeks

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FCI
Developed without exaggeration.

Eyes

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FCI
Alert and intelligent expression. The eyes must be of average dimensions, slightly almond shaped, neither deep-set nor prominent, normally and regularly placed, i.e. neither too close together nor too wide apart. The colour can vary from black, going through all shades of brown to yellow, in harmony with the skin colour in the naked variety and with the coat in the variety with hair. In any case, both eyes must be of the same colour. The colour of the eyelids may go from black to pink in subjects with light coloured face. The light pink colours are admitted but not sought after.
UKC
The eyes are medium in size, neither sunken nor prominent, slightly almond in shape, and have an alert expression. They range in color from black, through all shades of brown, to yellow, depending on the color of the coat and skin. Eyelid color varies, harmonizing with the color of the coat and skin. Pink eye rims are permitted, but not preferred.

Ears

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FCI
The ears must be pricked when the dog is attentive, whereas at rest, they are laid towards the back. The ears are of medium length; broad at the base, tapering progressively towards the tip, ending almost pointed. The ear set starts on the upper part of the skull to end laterally and obliquely. In erect position, the axes of the ears form a variable angle from 50° to near 90°.
UKC
In the hairless dogs, the ears are medium large, broad at the base, tapering to a point, and carried erect. They may be folded when the dog is at rest, gaiting, or coursing. In the coated dogs, the ears may be semi prick, with the tips falling either forward or out to the side. The ears are set fairly high on the skull but not too close together.

NECK

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FCI
Upper profile: Curved (convex). Length: Approximately the same length as the head. Shape: Near to a truncated cone shape, supple, with good musculature. Skin: Fine, smooth, elastic and really close to the subcutaneous tissues. No dewlap.
UKC
Long and curved, graceful yet well muscled. Free from dewlap.

BODY

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FCI
Mesomorphic.
UKC
The chest is moderately broad and deep, reaching nearly to the elbows. Ribs are lightly sprung, not flat. The topline is straight, with a slight arch, due to muscling, over the loin. The croup is rounded. There is good tuck-up.

Topline

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FCI
Level, although certain subjects show a dorsal-lumbar convexity, which disappears at croup, level.

Withers

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FCI
Barely accentuated.

Back

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FCI
Straight, with well-developed back muscles often forming all along the back a muscular bi-convexity, which extends to the lumbar region.

Loin

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FCI
Strong and well-muscled. Its length reaches approximately 1/5 of the height at the withers.

Croup

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FCI
The superior profile is slightly convex, slanting approximately 40° to the horizontal. Solid and well-muscled giving a good push.

Chest

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FCI
Seen from the front, the chest must have good amplitude, but without excess; reaching almost to the elbow. The ribs must be slightly sprung, never flat. The chest, measured behind the elbows, must exceed the height at the withers with approximately 18%.

Underline and belly

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FCI
The lower profile presents an elegant and well-marked line which goes from the lower part of the chest and rising to the belly which must be well tucked up, but without excess.

TAIL

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FCI
The tail is set on low, thick at the root it tapers towards the tip. When excited, the dog can carry the tail raised in a loose curve above the backline, but never as curved as being rolled up. At rest, it hangs with a slight upward curve at the tip. The tail is sometimes carried tucked in towards the abdomen. In length it almost reaches the hock. Tail to be complete.
UKC
Set on low, thick at the root and tapering toward the tip. At rest, it reaches to the hock and has a slight upward hook at the tip. When in motion, the tail may be carried curved above the backline, but never curled over the back.

LIMBS

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FOREQUARTERS

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FCI
Well united with the body, seen from the front they are perfectly upright with the elbows not turned out. The angle at the shoulder/upper arm varies between 100° and 120°. Seen in profile, the angle is 15° to 20°.
UKC
The shoulder blades are clean and moderately angulated with the upper arms, forming an angle of approximately 110 degrees.

FORELEGS

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UKC
Long, straight and strong, with the elbows held close to the body. The pasterns slope slightly off the vertical. Dewclaws may be removed.

FEET

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UKC
Hare shaped, with webbing between the toes and strong pads.

Forefeet

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FCI
Are semi-long and look like hare-feet. The pads are strong and heat-resistant. The inter-digital membranes are well developed. The black dogs have preferably black nails and the lighter coloured dogs light nails.

Hind feet

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FCI
Same as forefeet.

HINDQUARTERS

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FCI
The muscles are rounded and elastic. The curve of the buttocks is well marked. The coxal-femoral angle varies between 120° and 130°. The femoral-tibial angle must be of 140°. Seen from behind the hindquarters must be upright.
UKC
The hindquarter muscles are well-rounded and elastic. The moderate angulation matches that of the forequarter.

HIND LEGS

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UKC
Straight from hip to foot when viewed from behind. Rear dewclaws must be removed.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

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FCI
Due to the angulations defined at the description of the limbs, some of these dogs move with shorter steps but faster and at the same time quite soft and flexible. The limbs, seen from front or behind must move in a single line (i.e. single tracking).
UKC
Because they are moderately angulated, the Peruvian Inca Orchid moves with a rather short, quick step that is soft and flexible. There is a tendency to single track.

SKIN

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FCI
The skin must be smooth and elastic all over the body, but can form a few rounded almost concentric lines on the head and round the eyes and the cheeks in the hairless variety. It has been verified that the internal and external temperature of the hairless dogs is exactly the same as that of other breeds (coated or not). The absence of hair leads to an immediate and direct emanation of heat, different from the coated subjects, where the heat filters through the coat by natural ventilation.
Colour: The colour of the skin in the hairless variety can vary from black, slate black, elephant black, bluish black, the whole scale of greys (diluted black), all nuances of genetic blue, dark brown going to light blond. All colours can be either uniform or show pinkish or white patches on all parts of the body. White or pink spots must not cover more than 1/3 of the body. Solid colours are preferred.
UKC
The skin is smooth and elastic.

COAT

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HAIR

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FCI

Hairless variety: Without hair, only very few hairs on the head and at the extremities of the legs and the tail are admitted, and sometimes sparse hair on the back. These hairs can be any colour or combination of colours.
Coated variety: Smooth, short and tight coat. The hair can be any colour or combination of colours.
UKC
In the hairless dogs, there can be small amounts of hair on the head, legs and tail. In the coated dogs, the coat is single, moderately coarse and short to medium in length. Longer, softer furnishings can appear on ears and tail. The coat may be straight or slightly wavy.

COLOUR

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UKC
Color ranges from black through slate, blue-black, the entire range of grays, browns and blonds, either uniform or showing patches.

SIZE

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UKC
The Peruvian Inca Orchid exists in three sizes: Small - From 9.75 inches up to, and including, 15.75 inches at the withers. Medium - Over 15.75 inches up to, and including, 19.75 inches at the withers. Large - Over 19.75 inches up to, and including, 25.75 inches at the withers. The approximate weight ranges for each size are: Small - 8.8 to 17.6 pounds. Medium - 17.6 to 26.4 pounds. Large - 26.4 to 55.1 pounds.

Height at withers

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FCI

There are three sizes in the males and females.
Small 25–40 cms.
Medium 41–50 cms.
Large 51–65 cms.

Weight

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FCI

The weight is in relation to the size.
Small 4–8 kgs.
Medium 8–12 kgs.
Large 12–30 kgs.

FAULTS

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FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • Semi-erect ears, one or both.
  • Pincer bite.
  • Absence of PM1 in the coated variety.
  • White or pink spots covering more than 1/3 of the body in the hairless variety.
  • Presence of dewclaws.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

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FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Over or undershot bite.
  • Deviated jaw (i.e. wry mouth).
  • More than one teeth missing in the coated variety.
  • Hanging or cropped ears.
  • Tongue normally hanging outside of the mouth (paralyzed).
  • Eyes of different colour (heterochromatic)
  • Tail-less, short tail or docked tail.
  • Presence of hair in the hairless variety on parts of the body not indicated in the standard.
  • Total or partial de-pigmented nose.
  • Height more than 65 cms and less than 25 cms.
  • Albinism.
UKC

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Missing or docked tail. Hanging or cropped ears. Undershot or overshot bite. Albinism.
Teeth: Undershot or overshot bite.
Ears: Hanging or cropped ears.
Tail: Missing tail, docked tail.

other

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FCI
Preample: These dogs have been kept as a peculiarity because of their genetic nature, the procreation of dogs with and without hair in the same litter. Lost in the darkness of time the naked variety reached a major milestone when it was officially recognized as a breed native to Peru in 1985, during the ordinary Assembly of the FCI at Amsterdam city, thanks to the initiative of the Cynologist Ermanno Maniero, who did the first breed standard, it was possible that this was registered as a new breed under the name of Peruvian Hairless Dog with the number 310 of the nomenclature.
The recognition of the hairless dog did not eradicate the coated relative into oblivion. Disdained from any breeding program, its current recognition in the light of developments in the study of its genome emphasizes the genetic value of the breed and contributes to its development and preservation. The recognition of the coated variety, for show and for breeding, favours the expansion of genetic variability, improving the breed’s strength and attracts new breeders.
Initially to be registered, the coated variety must be the product of two hairless dogs duly registered in a stud book or breeding record.
The coated variety can only be mated to a hairless specimen of the breed and subsequently also for generations to come. The mating between coated specimens is banned, just like the registrations of these in any studbooks without duly registered parents.
N.B.: Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.