Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Continental Toy Spaniel

(Epagneul nain Continental - Papillon)

Papillon

Papillon


ORIGIN

:
FCI
France/Belgium.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
17.09.1990.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Toy.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 9Companion and Toy Dogs
Section 9Continental Toy Spaniel and Russian Toy
Without working trial

KC
Toy
UKC
Companion Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Mrs Peggy Davis.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
UKC
The Papillon (pronounced "Pappy-yon") may have had its origin in Spain or Italy, but both France and Belgium claim the breed today. The breed is believed to have been pure for at least 700 years, since at least the time of the Renaissance. The Papillon was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1950.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
Small de luxe Toy spaniel, of a normal and harmonious build, with long hair, moderately long muzzle shorter than the skull, lively personality, graceful yet robust, proud carriage with an easy and elegant gait. His body is somewhat longer than high.
KC
Dainty, well balanced little dog. An alert bearing and intelligent expression.
UKC
The Papillon is a small, friendly, elegant Toy-type breed. It has a fine-boned structure, is light and dainty, and has a lively action. Its distinguishing characteristic is its beautiful butterfly-like ears.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
KC
The name ‘Papillon’ is derived from the shape and position of the ears. When erect they are carried obliquely like the spread wings of a butterfly, hence the name. When the ears are completely dropped this type is known as the ‘Phalene’ (Moth). Head markings should be symmetrical, about a narrow white, clearly defined blaze which is desirable but not essential to represent the body of a butterfly.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
KC
Lively, intelligent, friendly, with no aggression; always alert.
UKC
The Papillon has a happy, alert temperament. The breed is intelligent and trainable, and should never be shy or aggressive.

HEAD

:
FCI
In normal proportion to the body and proportionately lighter and shorter than in the Spaniel of large or medium size.
KC
Skull slightly rounded between ears, muzzle finely pointed and abruptly finer than the skull, accentuating well defined stop. Length from tip of nose to stop approximately one-third of length of head. Nose black.
UKC
The head is small.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Not too rounded neither in profile nor from the front, sometimes showing a slight trace of medial furrow.
UKC
The skull is of medium width and is slightly rounded between the ears. There is a well-defined stop, formed where the muzzle joins the skull.

Stop

:
FCI
Depression sufficiently accentuate. In the heavier dogs, this depression is less evident yet still defined; in the very small dogs it is clearly marked without ever showing sudden break.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Small, black and round, but slightly flattened on top.
UKC
The small, black, rounded nose is slightly flat on top.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Shorter than the skull, fine, pointed and not too hollow on the sides; must not be turned up.
Nosebridge: Straight.
KC
Jaws strong, with perfect regular, and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Lips thin, tight and dark in colour.
UKC
The fine muzzle, which is abruptly thinner than the head, tapers to the nose. The length of the muzzle, measured from the stop to the tip of the nose, is approximately one-third the length of the head, measured from the occiput to the nose. Lip pigment is black.

Lips

:
FCI
Strongly pigmented, thin and tight.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Quite strong, closing well and normally.
Tongue: Must not be visible; the fact that it is constantly visible or not drawn in when touched by the finger is a fault.
UKC
A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors bite.

Eyes

:
FCI
Rather large, well open, in the shape of a large almond, not prominent, set rather low in the head, the inner corner is at the intersection of the skull and the muzzle. Dark in colour and very expressive; eyelid strongly pigmented.
KC
Medium size, rounded, never bulging, dark with dark rims, placed rather low in skull.
UKC
The dark, round eyes are of medium size and are alert in expression. The eyes are not bulging. The inner corner of the eye is on a line with the stop. Eyelid rims are black.

Ears

:
FCI
Quite fine but firm. When examined by hand, the cartilage must not end in too sharp a point. The ears are set on rather far back on the head, sufficiently apart one from the other, so as to reveal the slightly rounded shape of the skull. This variety is with erect ears. The ear is set on high, the auricle (external ear) well open and turned to the side; the inner edge of the auricle forming an angle of approx. 45° with the horizontal. In no case must the ear point upwards, which would be like a Spitz type ear and must definitely be rejected. The inside of the auricle is covered with fine hairs, also wavy. The longest hairs extending slightly beyond the edge of the ear; the outer face, on the contrary, is covered with long hair forming hanging fringes extending well beyond the edges of the ear. Cross-breeding with PHALENE often produces semi-erect ears, with drooping tip; this mixed form of ear carriage is a serious fault.
KC
Very large, mobile with rounded tips, heavily fringed; set towards back of head far enough apart to show slightly rounded shape of skull. Leathers firm but fine. When erect each ear should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees to head.
UKC
Ears may be either erect or drop. Regardless of the type, they are large, have rounded tips and are set on the sides and toward the back of the head. ERECT EARS - The erect-type ears are carried obliquely, moving like the spread wings of a butterfly. When the dog is alert, each ear forms an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the head. The leather is sufficient length to maintain the erect position. DROP EARS - Also known as the “Phalene” type, the Drop ears are similar to the Erect ears, except that they are carried drooping and must be completely down.

NECK

:
FCI
Of moderate length, a little arched at the nape.
KC
Medium length.
UKC
The neck is of medium length.

BODY

:
KC
Fairly long with level topline; well sprung ribs, loin strong, of good length, slightly arched belly.
UKC
The Papillon is not a cobby dog; the body is slightly longer than the height, measured at the withers. The back line is straight and level. The chest is of medium depth. The ribs are well-sprung. The belly is tucked up.

Topline

:
FCI
Neither too short or arched, nor saddled, without however being flat.

Loin

:
FCI
Solid and slightly arched.

Chest

:
FCI
Wide, fairly well let down. The circumference of the thorax taken between the past two ribs must be approximately equivalent to the height at the withers. Ribs well arched.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Slightly drawn up.

TAIL

:
FCI
Set quite high, rather long, abundant fringe forming a lovely plume. When the dog is in action, it is carried raised along the line of the back and curved, the extreme tip may touch the back; never should it curl or lie flat on the back.
KC
Long, well fringed, set on high, arched over back with fringes falling to side to form plume.
UKC
The long tail is set high and carried well-arched over the body, with the plume hanging to either side of the body.

LIMBS

:
FCI
Legs straight, firm, fine. The dog must not seem to be raised up; seen either from the front or from back, the legs are parallel.

FOREQUARTERS

:
KC
Shoulders well developed and sloping. Chest rather deep. Forelegs straight, slender with strong, fine bone. Elbows close to chest.
UKC
The well-developed shoulders are laid back to allow freedom of movement.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Well developed, well attached to the body.

FORELEGS

:
UKC
The slender forelegs are fine-boned and are always straight. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.

Forearm

:
FCI
Of equal length as the shoulder-blade, normally angulated and well joined with it, well attached to the body.

Pastern

:
FCI
Apparent in profile.

FEET

:
KC
Fine, fairly long, hare-like. Tufts of hair between toes extending far beyond them.
UKC
The feet are hare-like in shape, thin and elongated. They point neither in nor out.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Rather long, called « hare feet » resting evenly on their pads. Strong nails, preferably black, lighter in the dogs with brown or white coats (the white nails in white dogs or in dogs with white legs do not constitute a fault if the dog is otherwise well pigmented). The toes are strong with a tough pad, well furnished in between with fine hair extending beyond the tip of the foot and forming a point.

Hind feet

:
FCI
See Forefeet.

HINDQUARTERS

:
KC
Well developed, well turned stifle. Legs when viewed from behind parallel.
UKC
The hindquarters are well-developed and well-angulated.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
The slender, fine-boned hind legs are parallel when viewed from behind. Any dewclaws present on the hind legs must be removed. The hocks incline neither in nor out.

Hock joint

:
FCI
Normally angulated.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Proud, free, easy and elegant.
KC
Light, free-flowing, positive and free from any restriction. Viewed from in front or behind, legs and feet moving parallel to each other, with feet turning neither in nor out. Viewed from side, dog covering ground well with no hint of hackneyed action.
UKC
Movement is free, quick, easy and graceful.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI

The coat, without undercoat, is abundant, glossy, wavy (not to be confused with curly), not soft but slightly resistant to the touch, with silky reflections. The hairs are inserted flat; they are quite fine, slightly curved by the wave. The appearance of the coat is similar to that of the English Toy Spaniels, but it differs definitely from that of the Pekingese Spaniel; at the same time it should not have any resemblance to the coat of the Spitz. The hair is short on the face, the muzzle, the front of the legs and the underneath part of the hock.
Of medium length on the body, it gets longer on the neck to form a ruff and jabot, descending in waves on the chest; forming fringes at the ears and at the back of the forelegs; at the back of the thighs, an ample culotte with soft hair. There may be small tufts of hair between the toes and may even extend slightly beyond providing they do not give a heavy appearance to the foot, but rather give it a finer appearance by lengthening it. Certain dogs in good coat condition have hair 7,5 cm long at the withers and fringes of 15 cm on the tail.
KC
Abundant, flowing but without undercoat; long fine silky, falling flat on back and sides; profuse frill on chest; short and close on skull, muzzle and front parts of legs. Rear of forelegs to pasterns, tail and thighs covered with long hair.
UKC
The breed is single-coated; there is no undercoat. The long, abundant, fine, silky, coat is straight and flowing. It has a resilient quality and lies flat on the back and sides of the body There is a profuse frill on the chest. The hair is short and close on the skull, muzzle, the front of the forelegs and from the hocks down to the hind feet. The ears are well-fringed, with their inside being covered with medium length, silken hair. The backs of the forelegs are covered with feathers that diminish gradually down to the pasterns. Down to the hocks, the hind legs are covered with abundant breeches (culottes). The tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. The hair on the feet is short, but fine tufts may appear over the toes, growing beyond them to form points.

COLOUR

:
FCI
All colours are admitted on a coat with a white background. On the body and legs, the white must be dominant in relation to the colour. The white on the head preferably extended by a more or less wide blaze. A white marking is admitted on the lower part of the head, but dominant white on the head constitutes a fault. In all cases, the lips, the eyelids and principally the nose must be pigmented.
KC
White with patches, which may be any colour except liver. Tricolours, black and white with tan spots over eyes, tan inside ears, on cheeks, and under root of tail.
UKC
The Papillon is always parti-colored - white with patches of any color. They may be any parti-color, as long as the nose, eye rim and lip pigment is black. Head color, other than white, must cover both ears, on the back and the front, and extend without interruption from the ears over both eyes. A clearly defined white blaze and noseband are preferred over a solidly marked head. Facial-marking symmetry is desirable. The size, shape, placement, or absence, of body patches are without importance. No color is preferred over any other. A slight extension of the white collar onto the base of the ears, or a few white hairs interspersed on the color, are not to be penalized provided they do not detract from, or sacrifice, the butterfly appearance.

SIZE

:
KC
Height 20-28 cms (8-11 ins). Dog will appear slightly longer than high when properly furnished with ruff and hind fringes.
UKC
The height is measured at the highest point of the shoulder blades. Height range is from eight (8) to eleven (11) inches. Weight is in proportion to the height of the individual dog.

Height at withers

:
FCI
About 28 cm.

Weight

:
FCI

Two categories
1) Less than 2,5 kg for dogs and bitches.
2) From 2,5 kg to 4,5 kg for dogs, from 2,5 kg to 5 kg for bitches.
Minimum weight 1,5 kg.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Skull flat, apple-shaded and bulging as in the small English Toy Spaniels.
Stop too much or insufficiently accentuated.
Nose not black.
Muzzle arched or hollow.
Depigmentation of the lips.
Overshot and especially undershot mouth.
Eye small, too round, prominent; light in colour; showing white when the dog looks straight ahead.
Depigmentation on the edges of the eyelids.
Roach- or saddle back.
Tail curly, resting on the back; falling on the side (that is the bone and not the fringes which, because of their length, fall in locks).
Forelegs bowed.
Pastern joints knotty.
Hindquarters weak.
Hindquarters, which, seen from the back, are out of the vertical at the stifle, the hocks and the feet.
Single or double dewclaws on the hind legs are undesirable and constitute a beauty fault. Their removal is therefore advisable.
Feet turning inwards or outwards.
Nails not touching the ground.
Coat poor, soft or blown (puffed up); hair planted straight or itself straight; woolly hair; undercoat indicating cross-breading with the Spitz.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
UKC

Teeth: Overshot or undershot bites.
Ears: Small ears. Pointed ears. Ears set too high. Only one ear up. Ears partly down.
Tail: Low-set tail. Tail too short. Tail not arched over the back.
Size: Dogs over eleven (11) inches in height.
Gait: Paddle-footed. Stiff in hip movements.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
UKC

Nose: Nose not black.
Color: Other than white color on the head that does not cover both of the ears, back and front, and/or does not extend from the ears over both the eyes.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
Pink or pink spotted nose.
  • Excessive prognathism, overshot or undershot to the point where the incisors do not touch anymore.
Tongue paralysed or constantly visible.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
UKC

(An Eliminating Fault is a Fault serious enough that it eliminates the dog from obtaining any awards in a conformation event.) Any dog over twelve (12) inches in height.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Extreme viciousness or shyness. An all-white dog. A dog with no white. Albinism.
Color: Albinism. An all white dog. A dog with no white.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.