Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Newfoundland

Newfoundland

Newfoundland


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Canada.

PATRONAGE

:
FCI
FCI.

PUBLISHED

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FCI
29.10.1996.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

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FCI
Sledge dog for heavy loads, water dog.

CLASSIFICATION

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FCI
Group 2Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid
Section 2.2Molossoid breeds, Mountain type
Without working trial

KC
Working
UKC
Guardian Dog

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

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FCI
The breed originated in the island of Newfoundland from indigenous dogs and the big black bear dog introduced by the Vikings after the year 1100. With the advent of European fishermen a variety of new breeds helped to shape and reinvigorate the breed, but the essential characteristics remained. When the colonization of the island began in 1610, the Newfoundland Dog was already largely in possession of his proper morphology and natural behaviour. These features allowed him to withstand the rigours of the extreme climate and sea’s adversity while pulling heavy loads on land or serving as water and lifeguard dog.
UKC
As the name indicates, the breed originated in Newfoundland from dogs native to the island. Various theories state that the big black bear dogs introduced by the Vikings around 1100 AD contributed to the breed’s makeup. As European fishermen began to spend summers fishing in the areas around the island, various other breeds came with them and helped to shape and reinvigorate the breed, although the essential characteristics were not changed. By 1610, when colonization was permitted, the distinct physical characteristics and mental attributes had been permanently established in the breed. The Newfoundland was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1919.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

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FCI
The Newfoundland is massive, with powerful body, well muscled and well coordinated in his movements.
KC
Well balanced, impresses with strength and great activity. Substantial bone throughout, but not giving heavy inactive appearance. Noble, majestic and powerful.
UKC
As a whole, the Newfoundland has the appearance of a multipurpose dog that is at home on land and in the water. It is capable of draft work as well as possessing natural lifesaving instincts. It is large, balanced, heavy coated, deep bodied, well boned and strong (well muscled). The Newfoundland is slightly longer than tall. Females may be slightly longer in body than the males. Males may exhibit a more massive appearance than females. Structure and movement faults that may be common to all working dogs are as undesirable in the Newfoundland as they are in any other breed even though they may not be specifically referred to in the standard. Any deviation from the ideal is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

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FCI
The length of the body from the point of shoulders to the point of buttock is greater than the height at the withers. The body is compact. The body of the bitch may be slightly longer and is less massive than that of the dog. The distance from the withers to the underside of the chest is slightly greater than the distance from the underside of the chest to the ground.
KC
Large draught and water dog, with natural life-saving instinct, and devoted companion.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

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FCI
The Newfoundland’s expression reflects benevolence and softness. Dignified, joyful and creative, he is known for his sterling gentleness and serenity.
KC
Exceptionally gentle, docile nature.
UKC
The breed is sweet-dispositioned, never acting dull or ill tempered. Their soft expression reflects the benevolence, intelligence and dignity that are breed characteristics. The Newfoundland is a devoted companion. Dignity and a proud head carriage are exhibited in all good specimens of the breed.

HEAD

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FCI
Massive. The head of the bitch follows the same general conformation as the male’s one, but is less massive.
KC
Head broad and relatively large, occipital bone well developed, no decided stop, muzzle short, clean cut and rather square, covered with short fine hair.
UKC
The head is massive. Females have the same general head conformation as the males, but it is feminine and less massive.

CRANIAL REGION

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Skull

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FCI
Broad, with slightly arched crown and strongly developed occipital bone.
UKC
The skull is broad, with a slightly arched crown and a strongly developed occiput. The stop is moderate but may appear abrupt in profile because of the well-developed superciliary ridges. The smooth forehead and face are free of wrinkles.

Stop

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FCI
Evident, but never abrupt.

FACIAL REGION

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Nose

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FCI
Large, well pigmented, nostrils well developed. Colour Black on black and white and black dogs, brown on brown dogs.
UKC
Large, with well developed nostrils.

Muzzle

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FCI
Definitely square, deep and moderately short, covered with short, fine hair and free from wrinkles. The corners of the mouth are evident, but not excessively pronounced.
KC
Soft and well covered by lips. Scissor bite preferred, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws, but pincer tolerated.
UKC
The broad, deep, square muzzle is covered with short, fine hair. The muzzle length, measured from the stop to the tip of the nose, is less than the distance from the stop to the occiput. The flews are soft, and the corners of the mouth are evident but not overly pronounced.

Lips

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FCI
Flews: Soft.

Jaws/Teeth

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FCI
Scissors or level bite.
UKC
A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors or level bite.

Eyes

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FCI
Relatively small, moderately deep set ; they are wide apart and show no haw. Colour Dark brown in black and white and black dogs, lighter shades permitted in brown dogs.
KC
Relatively small, dark brown, not showing haw, set rather wide apart. Free from obvious eye problems.
UKC
The relatively small, deep-set eyes are spaced wide apart. They are dark brown in color in the black and black and white dogs; lighter shades are permitted in the brown and gray dogs. The eyelids fit close (with no inversion).

Ears

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FCI
Relatively small, triangular with rounded tips, well set back on the side of the head and close lying. When the ear of the adult dog is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side.
KC
Small, set well back, square with skull, lying close to head, covered with short hair without fringe.
UKC
The triangular-shaped ears are relatively small and have rounded tips. They are set well back on the side of the head and lie close to the head. The ear reaches the inner corner of the eye (on the same side) when the ear is brought forward.

NECK

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FCI
Strong, muscular, well set in the shoulders, long enough to permit dignified head carriage. The neck should not show excessive dewlap.
KC
Strong, well set on to shoulders.
UKC
The strong neck is well set on the shoulders, and is long enough to provide a proud head carriage. The neck should not show excessive dewlap.

BODY

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FCI
Bone structure is massive throughout. Viewed from the side, the body is deep and vigorous.
KC
Well ribbed, back broad with level topline, strong muscular loins. Chest deep, fairly broad.
UKC
The backline is level, and is broad, strong and well muscled from the shoulders through the croup. The broad croup slopes at about a 30-degree angle. The full, deep chest reaches at least down to the elbows. The ribs are well sprung and there is little or no tuck up.

Topline

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FCI
Level and firm from the withers to the croup.

Back

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FCI
Broad.

Loin

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FCI
Strong and well muscled.

Croup

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FCI
Broad, sloping at an angle of about 30°.

Chest

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FCI
Broad, full and deep, with good spread of ribs.

Underline and belly

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FCI
Almost level and never tucked up.

TAIL

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FCI
The tail acts as a rudder when the Newfoundland is swimming ; therefore it is strong and broad at the base. When the dog is standing, the tail hangs down with, possibly, a little curve at the tip ; reaching to or slightly below the hocks. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried straight out with slight upward curve, but never curled over the back nor curved inward between the legs.
KC
Moderate length, reaching a little below hock. Fair thickness well covered with hair, but not forming a flag. When standing hangs downwards with slight curve at end; when moving, carried slightly up, and when excited, straight out with only a slight curve at end. Tails with a kink or curled over back are most undesirable.
UKC
The strong tail is broad at the base. The set of the tail follows the natural line of the croup. If extended, the tail bone reaches to the hock. At rest, the tail hangs straight or with a slight curve at the end. The tail is carried straight out or slightly curved when the dog is in motion or is excited. The tail never curls over the back. A tail with a kink is objectionable.

LIMBS

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FOREQUARTERS

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FCI
The forelegs are straight and parallel also when the dog is walking or slowly trotting.
KC
Legs perfectly straight, well muscled, elbows fitting close to sides, well let down.
UKC
The well-muscled shoulder blades have a layback of about 45 degrees. The upper arm meets the shoulder blade at an angle of about 90 degrees.

Shoulder

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FCI
Very well muscled and well laid back.

Elbow

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FCI
Close to the chest.

FORELEGS

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UKC
The well-boned, well-muscled forelegs are straight and parallel from the elbow to the ground when the dog is viewed from the front. The elbows are close to the chest and point directly to the rear. The strong pasterns slope slightly.

Pastern

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FCI
Slightly sloping.

FEET

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KC
Large, webbed, and well shaped. Splayed or turned out feet most undesirable.
UKC
The cat-type, well-rounded feet are tight and are proportionate to the body in size. Toes are firm and arched. Complete webbing is always present.

Forefeet

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FCI
Large and proportionate to the body, well rounded and tight, with firm and compact toes. Webbing of toes is present.

Hind feet

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FCI
Firm and tight. Dewclaws, if present, should have been removed

HINDQUARTERS

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FCI
Because driving power for pulling loads, swimming or covering ground efficiently is largely dependent upon the hindquarters, the rear structure of the Newfoundland is of prime importance. The pelvis has to be strong, broad and long.
KC
Very well built and strong. Slackness of loins and cow-hocks most undesirable.
UKC
Correct rear structure is of utmost importance. As a whole, the rear assembly is powerful, well muscled and well boned.

Thigh

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FCI
Wide and muscular.

Stifle

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FCI
Well bent, but not so as to give a crouching appearance.

HIND LEGS

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UKC
The hind legs are straight and parallel when viewed from the rear. The upper thigh is wide and muscular. The lower thigh is strong and fairly long. The stifle is well bent but not exaggerated. The hock is well let down. The line from the hock to the ground (rear pastern) is perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws should be removed from the rear legs.

Lower thigh

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FCI
Strong and fairly long.

Hock

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FCI
Relatively short, well let down and well apart, parallel to each other ; they turn neither in nor out.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

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FCI
The Newfoundland moves with good reach of the forelegs and strong drive of the hindquarters, giving the impression of effortless power. A slight roll of the back is natural. As the speed increases, the dog tends to single track with the topline remaining level.
KC
Free, slightly rolling gait. When in motion slight toe-ing in at front acceptable.
UKC
The balance of good front and rear assemblies are essential to good movement. In motion the Newfoundland exhibits good reach in the front and a strong drive from the rear. Both fore and hind legs travel straight forward, and do not swing out. As speed increases, the dog single tracks. A slight roll of the skin while gaiting is breed typical.

COAT

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HAIR

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FCI
The Newfoundland has a water resistent double coat. The outer coat is moderately long and straight with no curl. A slight wave is permissible. The undercoat is soft and dense, more dense in winter than in summer, but always found to some extent on the croup and chest. The hair on the head, muzzle and ears is short and fine. The front and rear legs are feathered. The tail is completely covered with long, dense hair, but does not form a flag. Trimming and scissoring are not encouraged.
KC
Double, flat and dense, of coarse texture and oily nature, water-resistant. When brushed wrong way it falls back into place naturally. Forelegs well feathered. Body well covered but chest hair not forming a frill. Hindlegs slightly feathered.
UKC
Adult coat is double, and water resistant. The coarse outer coat is moderately long and full. It is preferably straight and flat, but may have a slight wave. When rubbed the wrong way, the coat tends to fall back into place. The soft, dense undercoat tends to be less so in the summer months and in tropical climates. An open coat is objectionable. The face and muzzle have short, fine hair. Excess hair on the ears may be trimmed, but it is not necessary. The legs are feathered all the way down. The feet may be trimmed for neatness. The tail is covered with long, dense hair, but it does not form a flag. Any trimming other than around the ears and on the feet is discouraged.

COLOUR

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FCI

Black, white and black and brown.
  • Black: The traditional colour is black. The colour has to be even as much as possible, but a slight tinge of sunburn is permissible. White markings on chest, toes and/or tip of tail are permissible.
  • White and black: This variety is of historical significance for the breed. The preferred pattern of markings is black head with, preferably, a white blaze extending onto the muzzle, black saddle with even markings and black croup and upper tail. The remaining parts are to be white and can show a minimum of ticking.
  • Brown: The brown colour goes from chocolate to bronze. White markings on chest, toes and/or tip of tail are permissible. White and black dogs and brown dogs are to be shown in the same class as blacks.
KC
Only permitted colours are: Black: dull jet black may be tinged with bronze. Splash of white on chest, toes and tip of tail acceptable. Brown: can be chocolate or bronze. In all other respects follow black except for colour. Splash of white on chest, toes and tip of tail acceptable. Landseer: white with black markings only. For preference black head with narrow blaze, evenly marked saddle, black rump extending to tail. Beauty in markings to be taken greatly into consideration. Ticking undesirable.
UKC
Black, white and black, brown, gray. Black, brown and gray may be solid colors or have white at some, or all, of the following locations: chin, chest, toes and tip of tail. Amount of white markings at these locations is irrelevant. White and black (Landseer) is a white base coat with black markings, typically a black head with or without a white blaze, a separate black saddle with even markings and a black croup and tail base. The remaining parts are white and may have minimal ticking.

SIZE

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FCI
Large size is desirable, but is not to be favoured over symmetry, general soundness, power of the structure and correct gait.
KC
Average height at shoulder: dogs: 71 cms (28 ins); bitches: 66 cms (26 ins). Average weight: dogs: 64-69 kgs (141-152 lbs); bitches: 50-54.5 kgs (110-120 lbs). While size and weight are important it is essential that symmetry is maintained.
UKC
Heights for adults are as follows: dogs, 28 inches; bitches, 26 inches. Weight ranges for adults are as follows: dogs, 130 to 150 pounds; bitches, 100 to 120 pounds. Quality, balance, structure and correct movement are not to be sacrificed at the expense of size alone.

Height at withers

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FCI
The average height at the withers is for adult males 71cm (28 inches), for adult bitches 66cm (26 inches).

Weight

:
FCI
The average weight is approximately 68kg for males, approximately 54kg for bitches.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • General appearance Legginess, lack of substance.
  • General bone structure Sluggish appearance, fine bone.
  • Character Aggressiveness, shyness.
  • Head Narrow.
  • Muzzle Snipey or long.
  • Flews Pronounced.
  • Eyes Round, protruding, yellow eyes, showing pronounced haw.
  • Back Roached, slack or swayed back.
  • Tail Short, long, kink tail, curled tip.
  • Forequarters Down in pastern, splayed toes, toeing in or out, lack of webbing between toes.
  • Hindquarters Straight stifles, cowhocks , barrel legs, pigeon toes.
  • Gait/Movement Mincing, shuffling, crabbing, too close moving, weaving, crossing over in front, toeing-out or distinctly toeing-in in front, hackney action, pacing.
  • Hair Completely open coat. Lack of undercoat.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
UKC

Muzzle: Narrow head. Snipey or long muzzle. Pronounced flews.
Teeth: Overshot bite. Undershot bite. Wry mouth.
Eyes: Pronounced haw. Protruding eyes. Yellow eyes. Round eyes.
Forelegs: Down in pasterns.
Body: Roached, slack or sway back.
Hind Legs: Straight stifles. Cow hocks. Barrel legs.
Feet: Splayed feet.
Gait: Crabbing. Weaving. Crossing over. Toeing out or toeing in. Hackney gait. Pacing.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Bad temperament.
  • Overshot or undershot bite, wry mouth.
  • Short and flat coat.
  • Markings of any other colour than white on a black or brown dog.
  • Any other colour than black or white and black or brown.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
UKC

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Short, flat coat. Albinism. Any color or combination of colors not described.
Coat: Short, flat coat.
Color: Any color or combination of colors not described.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.