Fédération Cynologique Internationale
The Kennel Club
United Kennel Club
House and Companion Dog
|Group 2||Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid|
|Section 1.2||Pinscher and Schnauzer type, Schnauzer|
|Without working trial|
Mrs C. Seidler.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
Around the turn of the century a dwarf Schnauzer from the Frankfurt/Main area went on his way, then still described as a rough haired Zwergpinscher (Miniature Pinscher). Due to the different shapes, sizes and types and the muddle of harsh, soft and silky coat textures, it was no easy task to evolve a small dog with the appearance and the characteristic qualities of his bigger brother, the Schnauzer.
The Miniature Schnauzer was developed in Germany, probably resulting, in part, from crosses between the Standard Schnauzer and the Affenpinscher during the last decade of the 19th century. Black Spitz-type dogs, and even Poodles, have also been suggested as possible ancestors of the breed. The first Miniature Schnauzer was registered in Germany in 1898, but the breed did not arrive in the United States until 1924. Although the breed was probably developed as a ratter, most Miniature Schnauzers today are primarily companion dogs. They have not lost their working abilities, however, and continue to excel in all performance events. The Miniature Schnauzer was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1948.
Small, strong, stocky rather than slim, rough coated, elegant. A reduced image of the Schnauzer without the drawback of a dwarfed appearance.
Sturdily built, robust, sinewy, nearly square, (length of body equal to height at shoulders). Expression keen and attitude alert. Correct conformation is of more importance than colour or other purely ‘beauty’ points.
The Miniature Schnauzer is a small, compact, robust, nearly square dog with a strong, rectangular head featuring V-shaped eyebrows extending over the eyes, and thick whiskers. Ears are set high on the skull and may be natural or cropped. The Miniature Schnauzer resembles the Standard Schnauzer, and should not appear fine and racy, toyish, or heavy and overbuilt. Gender differences are apparent in this breed, with the female having a somewhat more refined head, a lighter neck, and a slightly longer loin.
Square build in which the height at the withers is nearly equal to the body length.
The length of the head (measured from the tip of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail).
Well balanced, smart, stylish and adaptable.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:
His nature is similar to that of the Schnauzer and is determined by the temperament and the behaviour of a small dog. Intelligence, fearlessness, endurance and alertness make the Miniature Schnauzer an agreeable house dog as well as a watch and companion dog which can be kept even in a small appartment without problems.
Alert, reliable and intelligent. Primarily a companion dog.
The Miniature Schnauzer temperament is nearly ideal for a companion dog: affectionate but spirited, intelligent, obedient, and friendly. Miniature Schnauzers get along well with other dogs as well as people. A typical Miniature Schnauzer readily adapts to a wide variety of lifestyles.
Head strong and of good length, narrowing from ears to eyes and then gradually forward toward end of nose. Upper part of the head (occiput to the base of forehead) moderately broad between ears. Flat, creaseless forehead; well muscled but not too strongly developed cheeks. Medium stop to accentuate prominent eyebrows. Powerful muzzle ending in a moderately blunt line, with bristly, stubby moustache and chin whiskers. Ridge of nose straight and running almost parallel to extension of forehead. Nose black with wide nostrils. Lips tight but not overlapping.
The head is proportionate to the size of the body. When viewed from the side, the top lines of the skull and muzzle appear to be in two parallel planes, joined by a slight stop. The foreface is at least as long as the topskull. Viewed from the front, the head appears rectangular, because of the thick whiskers on the muzzle. In fact, the skull tapers slightly from the occiput to the stop, and the muzzle tapers slightly from the stop to the nose.
Strong, long without markedly protruding occiput. The head should be in keeping with the dog’s force. The forehead is flat, without wrinkles and parallel to the bridge of nose.
The skull is flat, unwrinkled, and fairly long. Viewed from above, the skull tapers slightly from the occiput to the muzzle. Cheeks are flat and clean.
Appears well defined due to the brows
Well developed nose leather, always black.
Nose is always black, and of good size.
Ending in a blunt wedge. Bridge of nose straight.
Jaws strong with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
The bridge of the muzzle is flat and parallel to the line of the topskull. Viewed from above, the muzzle actually tapers slightly from stop to nose, but appears rectangular and nearly as broad as the skull, due in part to the thick whiskers on the muzzle. Lips are tight and darkly pigmented. The hair on the muzzle is long and thick, forming the characteristic beard.
Black, smoot and tight-fitting to the jaws. Corners of lips closed.
Strong upper and lower jaw. The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth according to the dentition formula), is strongly developed and firmly closing. The chewing muscles are strongly developed but the cheeks must not interfere with the reactangular shape of the head (with the beard).
The Miniature Schnauzer has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite.
Medium sized, oval, facing foreward, dark with lively expression. Eyelids close fitting.
Medium-sized, dark, oval, set forward, with arched bushy eyebrows.
Eyes are small, oval in shape, and dark brown in color. They are set wide apart and deeply under the brow. Eye rim pigment is black.
Drop ears, set high, V-shaped with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, evenly carried , turned forward towards temples. Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull..
Neat, V-shaped, set high and dropping forward to temple.
Ears are set high on the skull and may be natural or cropped. Natural ears are small, V-shaped, breaking above the skull and held close to the cheeks. If cropped, ears are pointed and in balance with the head. The inner edge is perpendicular to the skull, with as little bell as possible along the outer edge. A Miniature Schnauzer with correctly set ears must not be penalized for an imperfect ear crop.
The strong, muscular neck is nobly arched, blending smoothly into the withers.
Strongly set on, slim, nobly curved, corresponding to the dog’s force. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds.
Strongly set on, slim, nobly curved, corresponding to the dog’s force. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds.
Moderately long, strong and slightly arched; skin close to throat; neck set cleanly on shoulders.
The neck is strong and well arched, broadening slightly at the withers, where it blends smoothly into the shoulders. The skin is tight.
Chest moderately broad, deep with visible strong breastbone reaching at least to height of elbow rising slightly backward to loins. Back strong and straight, slightly higher at shoulder than at hindquarters, with short, well developed loins. Ribs well sprung. Length of body equal to height from top of withers to ground.
A properly proportioned Miniature Schnauzer is nearly square, and the length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal one-half of the dog’s height. The withers are slightly elevated and the topline slopes very slightly from the withers to the tail. Whether the dog is standing or moving, the line of the back is strong and firm. The loin is short, muscular, and deep with no tuck-up. Ribs are long and oval in shape, with the first five ribs slightly flatter to allow free movement of the elbows. The brisket extends to the elbow. The forechest is well filled but does not extend beyond the point of shoulder. The croup is nearly flat.
Slightly sloping from withers towards rear.
Forming the highest point in topline.
Strong, short and taut.
Short, strong and deep. The distance from the last rib to the hip is short to make the dog appear compact.
Slightly rounded and imperceptibly blending into tail set on.
Moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows. The forechest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.
Underline and belly:
Flanks not too tucked up, forming a well curved line with the underside of the ribcage.
Natural; a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after.
Previously customarily docked. Docked: Set on and carried high, customarily docked to three joints. Undocked: Set on and carried high, of moderate length to give general balance to the dog. Thick at root and tapering towards the tip, as straight as possible, carried jauntily.
Tails may be natural or docked. Correctly set natural tails of any length and carriage are acceptable. The docked tail is set high, carried erect, and normally docked just long enough to be visible over the backline of the dog. A Miniature Schnauzer with a correctly set tail must not be penalized for an imperfect dock or for having an undocked tail.
Seen from the front, the front legs are strong, straight and not close together. Seen from the side, the forearms are straight.
Shoulders flat and well laid. Forelegs straight viewed from any angle. Muscles smooth and lithe rather than prominent; bone strong, straight and carried well down to feet; elbows close to body and pointing directly backwards.
The shoulder blades slope well back and toward each other. Shoulders are muscled, but flat and clean. The withers are high and well knit. Viewed from the side, the withers are in a nearly vertical line above the elbow. The upper arm is roughly equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an apparent right angle. The forelegs are straight, well boned, and parallel when viewed from all sides. The elbows are set close to the body. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are separated by a fairly deep brisket. The pasterns are short, only slightly sloping, and strong.
The shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of the shoulder bone, protruding over the points of the thoracic vertebrae. As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50° to the horizontal.
Lying close to the body, strong and well muscled, forming an angle of 95° to 105° to the shoulder blade.
Close fitting, turning neither in nor out.
Viewed from all sides, completely straight, strongly developed and well muscled.
Strong, firm, barely standing out against the structure of the forearm.
Seen from the front, vertical. Seen from the side slightly sloping towards the ground, strong and slightly springy.
Short, round, cat-like, compact with closely arched toes, dark nails, firm black pads, feet pointing forward.
The feet are short and round, well arched, and tight. Pads are thick and black.
Short and round. Toes well-knit and arched (cat foot) with short dark nails and resistant pads.
Toes short, arched and well-knit. Nails short and black.
Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel but not close together when seen from the rear.
Thighs slanting and flat but strongly muscled. Hindlegs (upper and lower thighs) at first vertical to the stifle; from stifle to hock, in line with the extension of the upper neck line; from hock, vertical to ground.
The hindquarters are strong and muscular, providing the drive necessary for fluid, well-coordinated action. The bone, angulation, and musculature of the hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The stifles are well bent, and the hocks are well let down. When the dog is standing, the short, strong rear pasterns are perpendicular to the ground and, viewed from the rear, parallel to one another. When standing naturally, the hocks extend beyond the tail.
Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Turning neither in nor out.
Long, strong and sinewy, running into a strong hock.
Very well angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.
Short, vertical to the ground.
GAIT / MOVEMENT:
Flexible, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The forelegs swinging as far forward as possible, the hind legs, ground covering and springy, provide the necessary drive. The front leg of one side and the hind leg of the other side move forward at the same time. The back, the ligaments and the joints are firm.
Free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in forequarters and good driving power in hindquarters. Topline remains level in action.
A correctly made Miniature Schnauzer moves like a working dog. When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful, and well coordinated, showing good but not exaggerated reach in front, and strong drive behind. The backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward centerline of balance.
Tight fitting over the whole body.
The coat should be wiry, harsh and dense. It consists of a dense undercoat and a not too short top coat, lying close to the body. The top coat is rough and sufficiently long to allow the checking of its texture; it is neither bristly nor wavy. The hair on the limbs tends to be less harsh. Coat short on forehead and ears. Typical characteristics are the not too soft beard on the muzzle and the bushy eyebrows which slightly shade the eyes.
Harsh, wiry and short enough for smartness, dense undercoat. Clean on neck and shoulders, ears and skull. Harsh hair on legs. Furnishings fairly thick but not silky.
The Miniature Schnauzer is a double-coated dog with a hard, wiry outer coat and a soft, dense undercoat. The coat is trimmed by stripping, and blends into the furnishings. The dog must be presented with sufficient length of body coat so that the texture and density may be determined. The longer coat on the beard, legs, and lower body is thick and is softer than the body coat. The Miniature Schnauzer coat must be sufficiently clean and well-groomed to enable a judge to properly evaluate the dog, but the artfulness of the trimming is not a factor to consider in judging this breed.
- Pure black with black undercoat.
- Pepper and Salt.
- Pure white with white undercoat.
For the Black/Silver colour, the aim in breeding is a black top coat with black undercoat, white markings over the eyes, on the cheeks, at the beard, at the throat, in two divided triangles at the front of the chest, on the front pasterns, on the feet, on the inside of the hind legs and around the anus. The forehead, the neck and the outer sides of the ears should be black like the top coat.
All pepper and salt colours in even proportions, or pure black, or white, or black and silver. That is, solid black with silver markings on eyebrow, muzzle, chest and brisket and on the forelegs below the point of elbow, on inside of hindlegs below the stifle joint, on vent and under tail.
The Miniature Schnauzer comes in four acceptable colors. Salt and Pepper: The hairs of the coat are banded with shades of black, gray and silver, which fades to a light gray or silver white in the eyebrows, whiskers, leg and underbody furnishings, and on the cheeks, throat, forechest, anal region, and inside the legs. The light underbody furnishings do not rise higher on the sides of the body than the front elbows. White: White, with a white undercoat. White dogs must have black pigment. Black and Silver: The Black and Silver coat pattern is the same as the Salt and Pepper except that the “salt and pepper” coat area is completely black. The black color is a true rich color with black undercoat. The stripped portion is free from any fading or brown tinge and the underbody should be dark. In the Salt and Pepper and Black and Silver, there must be a dark mask reflecting the respective color pattern. Black: The entire dog is solid black, with no gray hairs and no brown tinge except where the whiskers may have become discolored. The black color in the topcoat is a true rich, glossy, solid color. The undercoat is a less intense, flatter shade of black. A small white spot on the chest is acceptable, but not preferred.
Ideal height: dogs: 36 cms (14 ins); bitches: 33 cms (13 ins). Too small, toyish appearing dogs are not typical and undesirable.
Height at withers:
Dogs and bitches between 30 and 35 cm.
The acceptable range of height for a mature Miniature Schnauzer is from 12 to 14 inches.
Dogs and bitches approximately 4 to 8 kg.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
- Heavy or round skull.
- Wrinkles on forehead.
- Short, pointed or narrow muzzle.
- Pincer bite.
- Strongly protruding cheeks or cheekbones.
- Light, too large or round eyes.
- Low set, too long or unevenly carried ears.
- Dewlap, narrow crest or neck.
- Too long, tucked up or soft back.
- Roach back.
- Croup falling away.
- Tail set inclined towards head.
- Long feet.
- Pacing movement.
- Too short, too long, soft, wavy, shaggy, silky coat.
- Brown undercoat.
- A black trace on the back or a black saddle.
- In Black/Silver not clearly separated triangles on the chest.
- Over- or undersize up to 1 cm.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
Head: Stop too deep or abrupt; head coarse and cheeky. Forehead wrinkles.
Skull: Rounded or bumpy skull; skull too long and narrow.
Muzzle: Weak muzzle; lack of fill under the eyes. Short muzzle.
Teeth: Level bite.
Eyes: Light eyes; large or prominent eyes.
Ears: Low set, too long, or unevenly carried ears.
Neck: Any suggestion of a dewlap.
Forequarters: Straight shoulder; loose elbows; weak pasterns.
Body: Roached or sagging topline; loaded shoulders; chest too broad, too narrow, or too shallow; ribs too round or too narrow.
Hindquarters: Rear higher than withers; hocks turned inward or outward; sickle hocks.
Color: Any suggestion of tan or red banding.
Gait: Paddling, Hackney Action. Weak rear action.
- Clumsy or light build. Too low or too high on leg.
- Inverse sexual type (e.g. doggy bitch).
- Elbows turning out.
- Straight or open hocked hindlegs.
- Lower thigh too long.
- Hocks turning inwards.
- Rear pastern too short.
- White or spotted coat in black or pepper and salt dogs.
- Patchy coat in the colours black/silver and white.
- Over- or undersize by more than 1 cm but less than 2 cm.
Head: Foreface shorter than skull.
- Shy, aggressive, vicious, exaggeratedly suspicious or nervous behaviour.
- Malformation of any kind.
- Lack of breed type.
- Faulty mouth, such as over- or undershot or wry mouth.
- Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in construction, coat and colour.
- Over- or undersize by more than 2 cm.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Albinism. Pigment color other than black. Overshot or undershot. Wry mouth. Any color or color pattern other than described.
Appearance: Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid.
Characteristics: Viciousness or extreme shyness.
Teeth: Overshot or undershot. Wry mouth.
Color: Any color or color pattern other than described above; albinism. Pigment color other than black.
Height: A mature Miniature Schnauzer under 12 inches or over 14 inches.
Note: The docking of tails and cropping of ears in America is legal and remains a personal choice. However, as an international registry, the United Kennel Club, Inc. is aware that the practices of cropping and docking have been forbidden in some countries. In light of these developments, the United Kennel Club, Inc. feels that no dog in any UKC event, including conformation, shall be penalized for a full tail or natural ears.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.