Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

Great Dane

(Deutsche Dogge)

Great Dane


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Germany.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
08.10.2012.
KC
July 2008

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Companion, watch- and guard dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 2Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid
Section 2.1Molossoid breeds, Mastiff type
Without working trial

KC
Working

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Mrs. C. Seidler, revised by Mrs R. Sporre-Willes, E. Peper and C. Bailey / Official version DE.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
As forerunners of the present day Great Dane, one must look at the old “Bullenbeisser” (Bulldog) as well as the « Hatz-and Saurüden » (Hunting and wild boar hounds), which were midway between the strong Mastiff of English type and the fast, handy Greyhound. The term Dogge was at first understood to mean a large, powerful dog, not of any particular breed. Later, particular names such as Ulmer Dogge, English Dogge, Great Dane, Hatzrüde (Hunting Dog), Saupacker (boarfinder) and Grosse Dogge (Great Dogge), classified these dogs according to colour and size.
In the year 1878 a Committee of seven was formed in Berlin, consisting of active breeders and judges with Dr. Bodinus in the chair, which made the decision to classify all the forenamed varieties as “Deutsche Doggen” (Great Danes). Thus the foundation was laid for the breeding of a separate German breed.
In the year 1880, on the occasion of a show in Berlin, the first standard for the Deutsche Dogge was laid down.
This standard has been taken care of since the year 1888 by the “Deutsche Doggen Club 1888 e.V.” (German Doggen Club, registered Club 1888) and frequently been revised over the years. The present Standard meets the requirements of the F.C.I.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
The Great Dane in his noble appearance combines a large, powerful well constructed body with pride, strength and elegance. By substance together with nobility, harmonious appearance, well proportioned outlines, as well as an especially expressive head, the Great Dane strikes the onlooker as a noble statue, never coarse or with refined elegance. Perfect in balance and always with clearly defined sexual dimorphism. He is the Apollo amongst all breeds.
KC
Very muscular, strongly though elegantly built, with look of dash and daring, of being ready to go anywhere and do anything. Head and neck carried high, tail in line with back, or slightly upwards, but never curled over hindquarters. Elegance of outline and grace of form most essential.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI
Almost square in build, this applies particularly to males. Females can be a little longer in body.
KC
Alert expression, powerful, majestic action displaying dignity.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Friendly, loving and devoted to his owners. Might be reserved towards strangers, but required is a confident, fearless, easily tractable, docile companion and family dog with high resistance to provocation and without aggression.
KC
Kindly without nervousness, friendly and outgoing.

HEAD

:
FCI
In harmony with the general appearance. Long, narrow, distinct and expressive. Never wedge shaped. Finely chiselled, especially under the eyes. The distance from tip of nose to stop and from stop to the slightly defined occipital bone should be as equal as possible. The upper lines of muzzle and skull should definitely run parallel. The head must appear narrow seen from the front with bridge of nose as broad as possible.
KC
Head, taken altogether, gives idea of great length and strength of jaw. Muzzle broad, skull proportionately narrow, so that whole head when viewed from above and in front, has appearance of equal breadth throughout. Length of head in proportion to height of dog. Length from nose to point between eyes about equal or preferably of greater length than from this point to back of occiput. Skull flat, slight indentation running up centre, occipital peak not prominent. Decided rise or brow over the eyes but not abrupt stop between them; face well chiselled, well filled in below eyes with no appearance of being pinched: foreface long, of equal depth throughout. Cheeks showing as little lumpiness as possible, compatible with strength. Underline of head, viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line from corner of lip to corner of jawbone, allowing for fold of lip, but with no loose skin hanging down. Bridge of nose very wide, with slight ridge where cartilage joins bone (this is a characteristic of breed). Nostrils large, wide and open, giving blunt look to nose. Lips hang squarely in front, forming right angle with upper line of foreface.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Superciliary ridges well developed but not protruding.

Stop

:
FCI
Clearly defined.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Well developed, more broad than round with large nostrils. Must be black with the exception of harlequins (white with black patches). In these a black nose is desired but a butterfly nose (black with pink patches) or flesh coloured nose is tolerated. In blue dogs the colour of the nose is anthracite (diluted black).

Muzzle

:
FCI
Deep and as rectangular as possible. Bridge of nose must never be concave (dish shaped), convex (roman nose) or falling away in front part (eagle nose).
KC
Teeth level. Jaws strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.

Lips

:
FCI
Well defined corners of lips. Lips neither lacking flews nor being too pendulous or rolled in. Dark pigmented lips. In harlequins not totally pigmented or flesh coloured lips are tolerated.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Well developed broad jaws. Strong sound and complete scissor bite (42 teeth according to the dentition formula). Any deviation from a complete scissors bite (except for PM1s in lower jaw) is highly undesirable.

Cheeks

:
FCI
Cheek muscles only slightly defined and in no way protruding.

Eyes

:
FCI
Of medium size with lively friendly intelligent expression. Almond shaped with close fitting lids. Eyes not set too wide apart or slit eyes. As dark as possible, light piercing or amber coloured eyes are undesirable. Although in blue dogs slightly lighter eyes are tolerated. In harlequins pale (ice blue) eyes or two differently coloured eyes are to be tolerated.
KC
Fairly deep set, not giving the appearance of being round, of medium size and preferably dark. Wall, or odd eyes permissible in harlequins.

Ears

:
FCI
Naturally pendant set on high, but not lifted above skull or hanging low. Medium sized. Front edges lying close to cheeks but neither hanging flat nor standing off from sides of head.
KC
Triangular, medium size, set high on skull and folded forward, not pendulous.

NECK

:
FCI
Long, clean, muscular and never short or thick. Well formed set on, tapering slightly towards the head, with arched neckline. Carried upright but inclined slightly forward, but no ewe neck. Throatiness or dewlap is highly undesirable.
KC
Neck long, well arched, quite clean and free from loose skin, held well up, well set in shoulders, junction of head and neck well defined.

BODY

:
KC
Very deep, brisket reaching elbow, ribs well sprung, belly well drawn up. Back and loins strong, latter slightly arched.

Withers

:
FCI
The highest point of the strong body. It is formed by the points of the shoulder blades which extend beyond the spinal processes.

Back

:
FCI
Short and firm, in almost straight line falling away imperceptibly to the rear. Back never to be long or with top line rising towards the rear.

Loin

:
FCI
Slightly arched, broad, strongly muscled.

Croup

:
FCI
Broad, well muscled. Sloping slightly from hipbone to tail set, imperceptibly merging into the tail set. Croup must never fall away steeply or be completely flat.

Chest

:
FCI
Reaching to the elbows. Well sprung ribs, reaching far back. Ribs must never be barrel shaped or flat. Chest of good width and depth and must never look flat sided or shallow. Well marked fore-chest, although breastbone must not be too strongly pronounced.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Belly well tucked up towards rear, forming a nicely curved line with the underside of the brisket. It is not desirable that females retain a slack belly line after maternal duties.

TAIL

:
FCI
Reaching to the hocks, must not be too long or too short. Set on high and broad, neither too high nor too low. Not too thick, tapering evenly towards tip. In repose tail is hanging down with natural curve. When the dog is alert or moving the tail is carried slightly sabre-like but not markedly above the backline, must never be carried above the back line. Hook tail or curled tail as well as a tail carried sideways are highly undesirable. Bristle hair on tail undesirable.
KC
Thick at the root, tapering towards end, reaching to or just below hocks. Carried in straight line level with back, when dog is moving, slightly curved towards end, but never curling or carried over back.

LIMBS

:

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
Must be sufficiently angulated and with strong bone and muscles.
KC
Shoulders muscular, not loaded, well sloped back, with elbows well under body. Forelegs perfectly straight with big flat bone.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Strongly muscled. The long, slanting shoulder blade forms an angle of 100 to 110 degrees with the upper arm.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Strong and muscular, close fitting should be slightly longer than the shoulder blade.

Elbow

:
FCI
Turned neither in nor out.

FORELEGS

:

Forearm

:
FCI
Strong, muscular. Seen from front and side, completely straight with vertical stance.

Carpus (wrist)

:
FCI
Strong, firm, only slightly standing out from the structure of the forearm.

Pastern

:
FCI
Strong, straight when seen from the front, seen from the side, barely slanting forwards.

FEET

:
KC
Cat-like, turning neither in nor out. Toes well arched and close, nails strong and curved. Nails preferably dark in all coat colours, except harlequins, where light are permissible.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Rounded, well arched, well-knit toes (cat feet). Nails short, strong and as dark as possible.

Hind feet

:
FCI
Rounded, well arched, well-knit (cat feet). Nails short, strong and as dark as possible.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
The whole skeleton is covered by strong muscles which make the croup, hips and upper thighs appear broad and rounded. The strong well angulated hind legs, viewed from behind, are parallel to the front legs.
KC
Extremely muscular, giving strength and galloping power. Second thigh long and well developed, good turn of stifle, hocks set low, turning neither in nor out.

Thigh

:
FCI
Long, broad, very muscular.

Stifle

:
FCI
Strong, positioned almost vertically under the hip joint.

HIND LEGS

:

Lower thigh

:
FCI
Long, of approximately the same length as the upper thigh. Well muscled.

Hock joint

:
FCI
Strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
Short, strong, standing almost vertical to the ground.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Harmonious, lithe, covering a lot of ground, slightly springy. Never with a short stride or pacing. Legs must be parallel in movement, both coming and going and always well co-ordinated between front and rear.
KC
Action lithe, springy and free, covering ground well. Hocks move freely with driving action, head carried high.

SKIN

:
FCI
Tight fitting. In solid colours, well pigmented. In harlequins, the distribution of pigment mainly corresponds to the markings.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
Very short, dense, smooth and close lying, glossy. Must never be coarse, dull or a double coat.
KC
Short dense and sleek-looking, never inclined to roughness.

COLOUR

:
FCI

The Great Dane is bred in three separate colour varieties Fawn and brindle, harlequin and black, and blue.
Fawn: Light gold fawn to deep gold fawn. Black mask desired. Never to be grey fawn, blue fawn or a sooty fawn colour No white markings.
Brindle: Basic colour, light to deep gold fawn with black stripes as regular and clearly defined as possible, running with the direction of the ribs. Black mask desired. Never with washed-out streaks. No white markings.
Harlequin: (white with black splashed patches): Basic colour pure white, preferably with no ticking. Pure black patches well distributed all over the body, having the appearance of being torn. Grey or brownish patches or nuances of those colours in the black are undesirable as well as blue-grey ticking in the white. So called “Grautiger” occur, they are neither desirable nor to be disqualified.
Black: Jet black, white markings on chest and feet permitted. Included here are “Manteltiger” in which the black covers the body like a coat (“mantel”) or blanket and muzzle, throat, chest, belly, legs and tip of tail may be white. Also dogs with basic white colour and large black patches so called “Plattenhunde”. The black colour must never have nuances of fawn or brown or bluish black colour.
Blue: Pure steel blue, white markings on chest and feet permitted. Never with a fawn nuance or blackish blue colour.
KC
Brindles: must be striped, ground colour from lightest buff to deepest orange, stripes always black, eyes and nails preferably dark, dark shadings on head and ears acceptable. Fawns: colour varies from lightest buff to deepest orange, dark shadings on head and ears acceptable, eyes and nails preferably dark. Blues: colour varies from light grey to deep slate, the nose and eyes may be blue. Blacks: a) Black is black. In all above colours white is only permissible on chest and feet, but it is not desirable even there. Nose always black, except in blues and harlequins. Eyes and nails preferably dark. b) Mantle: Black and white with a solid, black blanket extending over the body. Ideally - black skull with white muzzle, white blaze optional, whole white collar preferred, a white chest, white on part or whole of the forelegs and hindlegs, white tipped black tail. Nose always black, eyes and nails preferably dark Harlequins: pure white underground with preferably all black patches or all blue patches, having appearance of being torn. Light nails permissible. In harlequins, wall eyes, pink noses, or butterfly noses permissible but not desirable.

SIZE

:
KC
Minimum height of an adult dog over eighteen months: 76 cms (30 ins); bitches: 71 cms (28 ins). Weight, minimum weight over eighteen months: dogs: 54 kgs (120 lbs); bitches: 46 kgs (100 lbs).

Height at withers

:
FCI

Males at least 80 cms, should not exceed 90 cms.
Females at least 72 cms, should not exceed 84 cms.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • Insufficient stop.
  • Rolled in lip (the lower lip is pinched between the incisives of upper and lower jaw).
  • Irregular position of individual incisors as long as the bite remains correct, teeth too small. Partial pincer bite.
  • Eyes protruding or too deeply set.
  • Shoulders that are loose or loaded or with upright shoulder blades.
  • Elbows lose.
  • Carpus bent, enlarged, or knuckling over.
  • Pasterns which are markedly weak, too sloping or too upright.
  • Hindquarters with too much or too little angulations.
  • Hock joints that are open, enlarged or unstable.
  • Cow hocked as well as rear pasterns too close together. Dewclaws.
  • Feet splayed or long.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

MINOR FAULTS

:

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Lacking self-confidence, shy, nervous.
  • Apple head and too prominent cheek muscles.
  • Slack eye lids and showing red haw.
  • Sway back or roach back.
  • Croup sloping too much.
  • Constant pacing.
  • Tail which is damaged thickened at the tip or which has been docked.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Fear-biting, easily provoked.
  • Liver coloured or split nose.
  • Bite that is overshot, undershot or a wry mouth, pincer bite, missing teeth apart from two P1 in the lower jaw.
  • Ectropion, entropion or macroblepharia.
  • Wall eyes or differently coloured eyes in all solid colours, except in harlequins.
  • Tail with kink (i.e. deformed vertebrae).
  • Silver blue or isabella colour in fawns and brindles.
  • Fawn, brindle or blue dogs with white as blaze, collar, socks or on tip of tail.
  • Miscoloured harlequins brindle or blue patches (‘porcelain tiger’), white with fawn.
  • Albino, i.e. no pigmentation.
  • Deafness.
  • Below minimum height.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.