Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

French Bulldog

(Bouledogue Français)

French Bulldog

French Bulldog


ORIGIN

:
FCI
France.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
03.11.2014.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Companion, watch dog, pleasure dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 9Companion and Toy Dogs
Section 11Small Molossian type Dogs
Without working trial

KC
Utility
UKC
Companion Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Mrs Peggy Davis.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
Probably issued, like all the mastiffs, from the Epirus and the Roman Empire molosses, relative of the Bulldog of Great Britain, the Alans (tribe of the Middle Age), the mastiffs and small type mastiffs of France, the bulldog we know is the product of different crossings done by enthusiastic breeders in the popular quarters of Paris in the years 1880.
During that period, the Bulldog being a dog belonging to butchers and coachmen of « les Halles » (market place), he soon knew how to conquer the high society and the artistic world by his particular appearance and character. He then rapidly propagated himself.
The first breed club was founded in 1880 in Paris. The first registration dates from 1885 and the first standard was established in 1898, year in which the « Société Centrale Canine » of France recognized the breed of the French Bulldog. The first shown dog was from 1887. The standard, modified in 1931, 1932 and 1948, was reformulated in 1986 by H.F. Reant and R. Triquet (F.C.I. publication 1987), then in 1994 by the committee of the Club of the French Bulldog with the collaboration of R. Triquet.
UKC
It is generally accepted that the French Bulldog was developed in France, using the Miniature or Toy Bulldogs brought over from England by English lace workers. What specific breeds were crossed with the English dogs is not known, but they did introduce the “bat ear”, which is not a characteristic of the English Bulldogs. The French Bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1965. GENERAL APPEARANCE The French Bulldog's appearance is that of an active, intelligent, muscular dog, powerful for its small size. It is short and compact, with good bone, a smooth, short coat and distinctive ‘bat’ ears. When comparing specimens of different sexes, allowance is to be given to females, which do not bear the breed characteristics to the same marked degree as dogs.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
Typically a small size molossian. Powerful dog for its small size, short, compact in all its proportions, smooth-coated, with a short face, a snub nose, erect ears and a naturally short tail. Must have the appearance of an active animal, intelligent, very muscular, of a compact build with a solid bone structure.
KC
Sturdy, compact , solid, small dog with good bone, short, smooth coat. No point exaggerated, balance essential. Dogs showing respiratory distress highly undesirable.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
KC
Full of courage, yet with clown-like qualities. Bat ears and short tail characteristic features of the breed.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Sociable, lively, playful, sporty, keen. Particularly affectionate towards his masters and the children.
KC
Vivacious, deeply affectionate, intelligent.
UKC
The French Bulldog is an affectionate and sociable companion. It is lively and playful, but not boisterous.

HEAD

:
FCI
The head must be very strong, broad and square, the skin of the head forming almost symmetrical folds and wrinkles. The head of the bulldog is characterized by a contraction of the maxillary-nasal part; the skull has taken up in width that which it has lost in length.
KC
Head square in appearance and in proportion to dog’s size. Skull nearly flat between ears, domed forehead. The skin covering the skull and forehead should be supple enough to allow fine wrinkling when the dog is alert. Well defined muzzle, broad, deep and set back, muscles of cheeks well developed. Stop well defined. Lower jaw deep, square, broad, slightly undershot and turned up. Nose black and wide, relatively short, with open nostrils and line between well defined. Lips black, thick, meeting each other in centre, completely hiding teeth. Upper lip covers lower on each side with plenty of cushion, never so exaggerated as to hang too much below level of lower jaw.
UKC
The head is strong, broad and square, with skin that forms nearly symmetrical folds and wrinkles.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Broad, almost flat, forehead very bulging. Superciliary arches prominent, separated by a particularly developed furrow between the eyes. The furrow must not extend onto the forehead. Occipital crest is hardly developed.
UKC
The top of the skull is flat between the ears. The forehead is slightly rounded. The stop is well defined, and there is a furrow between the eyes that does not extend up onto the forehead. No prominence of occiput.

Stop

:
FCI
Deeply accentuated.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Broad, very short, turned up, nostrils well open and symmetrical, slanting towards the rear. The inclination of the nostrils as well as the snub nose (i.e. upturned) must, however, allow a normal nasal breathing.
UKC
The nose is turned up slightly, and has broad, well-opened nostrils, with a well-defined line between them. Nose pigment is black, except in the case of lighter colored dogs (cream or fawn), where a lighter colored nose is acceptable.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Very short, broad, with concentric symmetrical folds coming down on the upper lips (length of muzzle about 1/6 of the total length of the head).
KC
Slightly undershot. Teeth sound and regular, but not visible when the mouth is closed. Tongue must not protrude.
UKC
Although the muzzle is proportionately short in comparison to the size of the dog, it is evident and allows for comfortable breathing. It is broad, deep and well laid back, with symmetrical folds of skin coming down on to the lips. Cheek muscles are well developed. The thick, broad flews hang over the lower jaw at the sides and meet the underlip in front, covering the teeth. The flews are black. The deep, square, broad underjaw is undershot and well turned up.

Lips

:
FCI
Thick, a little loose and black. The upper lip rejoins the lower lip at its middle, completely covering the teeth which should never be visible. The profile of the upper lip is descending and rounded. Tongue must never show.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Jaws: Broad, square, powerful. Lower jaw shows a broad curve, terminating in front of the upper jaw. The mouth being closed, the prominence of the lower jaw (prognathism-undershot) is moderated by the curve of the lower mandibular branches. This curve is necessary to avoid a too important shifting of the lower jaw.
Teeth: The lower incisors must never be behind the upper incisors in any case. The arch of the lower incisors is rounded. The jaw must not show lateral deviation, nor torsion. The disposition of the incisoral arches should not be strictly delimited, the essential condition being that the upper and the lower lips rejoin to completely cover the teeth.
UKC
When the mouth is closed, the teeth and tongue do not show. A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in an undershot bite.

Cheeks

:
FCI
The muscles of the cheeks are well developed, but not prominent.

Eyes

:
FCI
Lively expression, set low, quite far from the nose and especially from the ears, dark coloured, quite big, well round, slightly protruding, showing no trace of white (sclera) when the dog is looking straight ahead. Rims of eyelids must be black.
KC
Preferably dark and matching. Moderate size, round, neither sunken nor prominent, showing no white when looking straight forward; set relatively wide apart and on same level as the stop.
UKC
The eyes are round and dark. They are set wide apart and low in the skull well away from the ears. Neither the white of the eyes nor the haw shows when the dog is looking forward. The eye rims are black, and the expression is lively.

Ears

:
FCI
Medium size, wide at the base and rounded at the top. Set high on the head, but not too close together, carried erect. The orifice is open towards the front. The skin must be fine and soft to the touch.
KC
’Bat ears‘, of medium size, wide at base, rounded at top; set high, carried upright and parallel, a sufficient width of skull preventing them being too close together; skin soft and fine, orifice as seen from the front, showing entirely. The opening to the ear canal should be wide and open.
UKC
The breed typical "bat ears" are broad at the base, with a round top. The elongated ears are set high on the head, but not too close together, and are carried erect with the orifice to the front. The ear leather is fine and soft.

NECK

:
FCI
Short, slightly arched, without dewlap.
KC
Powerful, well arched and thick, of moderate length.
UKC
The short, slightly arched neck is free of dewlap.

BODY

:
KC
Cobby, muscular and well rounded with deep wide brisket and ribs well sprung. Strong, gently roached back. Good ‘cut up’. The body while broader at the shoulders should narrow slightly beyond the ribs to give definition to the relatively short, thick, strong, muscular loin.
UKC
The compact body is deep and broad through the chest, with a broad back and barrel shaped ribcage. The loin is very short and broad. The topline rises progressively from a slight fall off behind the shoulders to the loin, and then slopes rapidly to the set on of the tail. There is moderate tuck up.

Topline

:
FCI
Rising progressively at loin level to slope rapidly towards the tail. This conformation which must be sought after, is the consequence of the short loin.

Back

:
FCI
Broad and muscular.

Loin

:
FCI
Short and broad.

Croup

:
FCI
Oblique.

Chest

:
FCI
Chest: Cylindrical and well let down; ribcage barrel shaped, very rounded.
Forechest: Wide.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Belly and flanks: Drawn up without excessive tuck up.

TAIL

:
FCI
Short, set low on the rump, close to the buttocks, thick at the base, knotted or kinked naturally and tapering at the tip. Even in action, must stay below the horizontal. A relatively long tail (not reaching beyond the point of the hocks), kinked and tapering is admissible, but not desirable.
KC
Undocked, short, set low, thick at root, tapering quickly towards tip, preferably straight and long enough to cover anus, never curling over back nor carried gaily.
UKC
The short tail is thick at the root and has a fine tip. It is hung low, and carried low in repose. It may be either straight or screwed, but not curly.

LIMBS

:

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
Forelegs vertical and parallel seen in profile and from the front, standing well separated.
KC
Legs set wide apart, straight boned, strong, muscular and short.
UKC
The shoulder blades and upper arms are short and thick, covered with visible musculature.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Short, thick, with a firm and visible musculature.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Short.

Elbow

:
FCI
Close to the body.

FORELEGS

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UKC
The short, stout, straight, muscular forelegs are set fairly wide apart. The pasterns are short and strong. The feet may turn out slightly.

Forearm

:
FCI
Short, straight and muscular.

Pastern

:
FCI
Pastern joint: Solid and short.

FEET

:
KC
Small, compact and placed in continuation of line of leg, with absolutely sound pasterns. Hind feet rather longer than the fore-feet. Toes compact; well knuckled; nails short, thick and preferably black.
UKC
The compact feet are round and moderate in size. The toes are well split up and have high knuckles and hard, thick pads. The nails are stubby. The hind feet are slightly longer than the forefeet.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Forefeet round of small dimension, i.e. « cat feet », well set on the ground, turning slightly outward. The toes are compact, nails short, thick and well separated. The pads are hard, thick and black. In the brindle subjects, the nails must be black. In the pieds (caille = brindled fawns with medium white patching) and fawn subjects, dark nails are preferred, without however penalising the light coloured nails.

Hind feet

:
FCI
Hindfeet well compact.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
Strong and muscular, hindlegs a little longer than the forelegs, thus raising the hindquarters. The legs are vertical and parallel as seen both in profile and from behind.
KC
Legs strong, muscular and relatively longer than forelegs with moderate angulation. Absolute soundness essential. Hocks well let down.

Thigh

:
FCI
Muscled, firm without being too rounded.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
The strong, muscular hind legs are longer than the forelegs, causing the loins to be elevated above the shoulders. The hocks are well let down and there is moderate angulation at the hock joint.

Hock joint

:
FCI
Quite well let down, neither too angulated nor certainly too straight.

Hock

:
FCI
Solid and short. The French Bulldog should be born without dewclaws.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Free movement, the legs moving parallel to the median plane of the body.
KC
Free and flowing. Soundness of movement of the utmost importance.
UKC
The correct gait is free and vigorous, with the legs moving parallel to the median plane of the body. (Double tracking.)

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
Beautiful smooth coat, close, glossy and soft.
KC
Texture fine, smooth, lustrous, short and close.
UKC
Short, smooth, close, glossy and soft.

COLOUR

:
FCI

  • Uniformly fawn, brindled or not, or with limited patching (pied).
  • Fawn brindled or not, with medium or predominant patching.
All the fawn shades are admitted, from the red to light brown (café au lait) colour. The entirely white dogs are classified in « brindled fawn with predominant white patching ». When a dog has a very dark nose, dark eyes with dark eyelids, certain depigmentations of the face may exceptionally be tolerated in very beautiful subjects.
KC
Brindle, pied or fawn. Tan, mouse and grey/blue highly undesirable. Brindle: a mixture of black and coloured hairs. May contain white provided brindle predominates. Pied: white predominates over brindle. Whites are classified with pieds for show purposes; but their eyelashes and eye rims should be black. In pieds the white should be clear with definite brindle patches and no ticking or black spots. Fawn: may contain brindle hairs but must have black eye lashes and eye rims.
UKC
The acceptable colors include all brindles; fawn; cream; white; brindle and white; and any other color that does not constitute a disqualification.

SIZE

:
KC
Ideal weight: dogs: 12.5 kgs (28 lbs); bitches: 11 kgs (24 lbs). Soundness not to be sacrificed to smallness.

Weight

:
FCI
The weight must not be below 8 kg nor over 14 kg for a bulldog in good condition, size being in proportion with the weight.
UKC
A French Bulldog in good condition must weigh between 18 and 28 pounds.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • Nose tightly closed or pinched and chronic snorers.
  • Lips not joining in the front.
  • Depigmentation of the lips.
  • Light eyes.
  • Dewlap.
  • Tail carried high, or too long or abnormally short.
  • Loose elbows.
  • Straight hock or placed forward.
  • Incorrect movement.
  • Coat (hair) too long.
  • Speckled coat.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Incisors visible when mouth closed.
  • Tongue visible when mouth closed.
  • Stiff beating movement of the forelegs.
  • Pink spots on the face, except in the case of brindled fawns with medium white patching (« caille ») and fawns with limited or predominant white patching. (« fauve »).
  • Excessive or insufficient weight.
UKC
Teeth: Any bite other than undershot. Teeth and/or tongue showing when the mouth is closed.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Colour of nose other than black.
  • Hare lip.
  • Dog with lower incisors articulating behind upper incisors.
  • Dog with permanently visible canines, mouth being closed.
  • Eyes of two different colours (heterochromatic).
  • Ears not carried erect.
  • Mutilation of ears, tail or dewclaws.
  • Taillessness.
  • Dewclaws on hindquarters.
  • Colour of coat black and tan, mouse grey, brown.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
UKC


Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Eyes that are two different colors. The following coat colors are disqualifications: Black and tan; liver; mouse gray. Albinism. Docked tail. Nose color other than black. Any mutilation such as cropped ears or docked tail. Cropped ears, or ears that are not carried erect. Black and tan. Liver. Mouse gray.
Appearance: Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid.
Characteristics: Viciousness or extreme shyness.
Muzzle: Heavy wrinkles that affect breathing and/or obstructs normal vision. Muzzle so short as to affect breathing.
Eyes: Eyes that are two different colors.
Ears: Cropped ears, or ears that are not carried erect.
Tail: Docked tail.
Color: Albinism. Black and tan. Liver. Mouse gray.
Head: Heavy wrinkles that affect breathing and/or obstructs normal vision.
Muzzle: Muzzle so short as to affect breathing.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.