Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Dobermann

Dobermann

Doberman Pinscher


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Germany.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
13.11.2015.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Companion, protection and working dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 2Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid
Section 1.1Pinscher and Schnauzer type, Pinscher
With working trial

KC
Working
UKC
Guardian Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Dobermann Council of K.U.S.A. (Kennel Union of Southern Africa).

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
The Dobermann is the only German breed which bears the name of its original breeder, Friedrich Louis Dobermann (02.01.1834 – 09.06.1894).
He was believed to be a tax collector, offal abbatoir manager (knacker) and a part time dog catcher, legally able to catch all stray dogs. He bred with animals from this reservoir that were particularly sharp. The so called “butcher’s dogs” which were already considered a relatively pure breed at that time, played a most important role in the origination of the Dobermann breed. These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler, mixed with a type of shepherd which existed in “Thüringen” as a black dog with rust red markings. Herr Dobermann bred with this mixture of dogs in the Eighteen Seventies. Thus he obtained “his breed” not only alert, but highly protective working and housedogs. They were often used as guard and police dogs. Their extensive use in police work led to the nickname “Gendarme dog”. They were used in hunting to control large vermin. In these circumstances it was a matter of course that the Dobermann was recognized officially as a Police Dog by the beginning of the century.
The Dobermann breed requires a medium sized, powerful, muscular dog. Despite his substance he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his body line. He must be exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog.
UKC
The Doberman Pinscher was developed in Germany toward the end of the 19th century. The Germans wanted to create a functional protection and guard dog that would also serve as a family companion. Dogs were selected for their courage and intelligence. One of the most well-known early breeders was Louis Dobermann, from whom the breed takes its name. It is uncertain how many and exactly which breeds were used to create the Doberman Pinscher. Most authorities include the Rottweiler, the old (and now extinct) German Shepherd, the German Pinscher, the Manchester Terrier, and the Greyhound. What is certain is that the breed assumed its present appearance fairly rapidly and was recognized by the German Kennel Club in 1899. Dobermans began to appear in large numbers in the United States after World War I. The breed has been a successful working dog and a popular companion, excelling in police and military work. The breed has been recognized by the United Kennel Club since the 1940's.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature, and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of dog.
KC
Medium size, muscular and elegant, with well set body. Of proud carriage, compact and tough. Capable of great speed.
UKC
The Doberman Pinscher is a square-bodied, smoothly-muscled, elegant dog of medium size with a short coat. The head is wedge-shaped with high-set ears that may be cropped or hang naturally. The naturally arched neck flows into smooth shoulders which continue into a strong straight topline, continuing on to the tail which appears to be a continuation of the spine. The length of the head, neck and legs are in proportion to the length and depth of the body. The Doberman Pinscher comes in four colors with rust markings. The appearance of the Doberman Pinscher should convey power and elegance.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

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FCI
The body of the Dobermann appears to be almost square, particularly in males. The length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock shall not be more than 5% longer than the height from the withers to the ground in males, and 10% in females.
KC
Intelligent and firm of character, loyal and obedient.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

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FCI
The disposition of the Dobermann is friendly and calm; very devoted to the family it loves children. Medium temperament and medium sharpness (alertness) is desired. A medium threshold of irritation is required with a good contact to the owner. Easy to train, The Dobermann enjoys working, and shall have good working ability, courage and hardness. The particular values of self confidence and intrepidness are requied, and also adaptability and attention to fit the social environment.
KC
Bold and alert. Shyness or viciousness very highly undesirable.
UKC
Early Doberman Pinschers were noted for their "sharp" temperaments but decades of careful breeding has produced a nearly ideal all-round working dog, intelligent, brave and loyal. Dobermans are alert and watchful dogs, and fearless when threatened with danger. Dobermans are energetic dogs, particularly when young, and benefit from regular training and exercise from the start. With high intelligence and confidence comes determination, so a Doberman owner must be prepared to be patient, firm and consistent in training. Dobermans excel in performance events, particularly in obedience and protection work.

HEAD

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KC
In proportion to body. Long, well filled out under eyes and clean cut, with good depth of muzzle. Seen from above and side, resembles an elongated blunt wedge. Upper part of head flat and free from wrinkle. Top of skull flat, slight stop; muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat, lips tight. Nose solid black in black dogs, solid dark brown in brown dogs, solid dark grey in blue dogs and light brown in fawn dogs. Head out of balance in proportion to body, dish-faced, snipy or cheeky very highly undesirable.
UKC
The head is long and dry, forming a blunt wedge when viewed from the front or side. Viewed from the front, the head gradually widens toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are equal in length, parallel to one another and joined by a slight, gently sloping stop.

CRANIAL REGION

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FCI
Strong and in proportion to the body. Seen from the top the head is shaped in the form of a blunt wedge. Viewed form the front the crown line shall be almost level and not dropping off to the ears. The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull which falls, gently rounded, into the neck line. The superciliary ridge is well developed without protruding. The forehead furrow is still visible. The occiput shall not be conspicuous. Seen from the front and the top the sides of the head must not bulge. The slight bulge between the rear of the upper jawbone and the cheek bone shall be in harmony with the total length of the head. The head muscles shall be well developed.

Skull

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UKC
The skull is flat and of moderate width. Cheeks are flat and muscular.

Stop

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FCI
Shall be slight but visibly developed.

FACIAL REGION

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Nose

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FCI
Nostrils well developed, more broad than round, with large openings without overall protrusion. Black – on black dogs; on brown dogs, corresponding lighter shades.
UKC
Solid colored. The nose is black in black dogs, dark brown in red dogs, dark gray in blue dogs and dark tan in fawn dogs.

Muzzle

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FCI
The muzzle must be in the right proportion with the upper head and must be strongly developed. The muzzle shall have depth. The mouth opening shall be wide, reaching to the molars. A good muzzle width must also be present on the upper and lower incisor area.
KC
Well developed, solid and strong with complete dentition and a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Evenly placed teeth. Undershot, overshot or badly arranged teeth highly undesirable.
UKC
In profile, the muzzle should not slant back too suddenly from under the nose. Jaws are full, powerful and well filled under the eyes. Lips are tight and dry.

Lips

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FCI
Flews: They shall be tight and lie close to the jaw which will ensure a tight closure of the mouth. The pigment of the gum to be dark; on brown dogs a corresponding lighter shade.

Jaws/Teeth

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FCI
Powerful broad upper and under jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
UKC
A full complement (42) of correctly placed, strongly developed teeth (22 in the lower jaw and 20 in the upper jaw) meet in a true scissors bite, lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors. Discolored teeth are not to be penalized.

Eyes

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FCI
Middle sized, oval and dark in colour. Lighter shades are permitted for brown dogs. Close lying eyelids. Eyelids shall be covered with hair. Baldness around the rim of the eye is highly undesirable.
KC
Almond-shaped, not round, moderately deep set, not prominent, with lively, alert expression. Iris of uniform colour, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs, the darker shade being more desirable. In browns, blues, or fawns, colour of iris blends with that of markings, but not of lighter hue than markings; light eyes in black dogs highly undesirable.
UKC
Eyes are almond shaped and moderately deep set. Eye colors range from medium to dark brown in black dogs. In blue, red and fawn dogs, the color of the iris should blend with that of the markings. Darker shades are always preferred.

Ears

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FCI
The ear, which is set high, is carried erect and cropped to a length in proportion to the head. In a country where cropping is not permitted the uncropped ear is equally recognized. (Medium size preferred and with the front edge lying close to the cheeks).
KC
Small, neat, set high on head. Normally dropped, but may be erect.
UKC
Cropped or uncropped equally acceptable. The cropped ear stands erect, set high enough on the head so that the inner attachment of the ear is level with the top of the skull. The uncropped ear is medium sized, triangular in shape and set high on the skull. The ear flap lays flat against the sides of the head.

NECK

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FCI
The neck must have a good length and be in proportion to the body and the head. It is dry and muscular. Its outline rises gradually and is softly curved. Its carriage is upright and shows much nobility.
KC
Fairly long and lean, carried with considerable nobility; slightly convex and in proportion to shape of dog. Region of nape very muscular. Dewlap and loose skin undesirable.
UKC
The neck is smoothly muscled and well arched, widening gradually from the nape to the shoulders. Skin of throat is tight, free of dewlap. When the dog is standing, the neck is carried proudly with the head held high.

BODY

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KC
Square, height measured vertically from ground to highest point at withers equal to length from forechest to rear projection of upper thigh. Forechest well developed. Back short and firm, with strong, straight topline sloping slightly from withers to croup; bitches may be slightly longer to loin. Ribs deep and well sprung, reaching to elbow. Belly fairly well tucked up. Long, weak, or roach backs highly undesirable.
UKC
Viewed in profile, the body is compact and square. . The ribs extend well back and are well sprung from the spine, then flattening to form a deep body extending to the elbows. Viewed from above, the width of body at the point of shoulders and width of the muscles over the hips should be about the same. Withers are pronounced and form the highest point of the topline. The back is short, firm, level and moderately wide. The loin is short and muscular, but narrower than the rib cage. The croup is broad, muscular and slightly rounded. The topline extends in a straight line from the top of the withers to the top of the slightly rounded croup. Viewed from the front, the chest is deep, well filled in, and broad, allowing the brisket to extend down to the elbows without being pinched. Viewed from the side, the forechest is well defined, extending just slightly beyond the point of shoulder. The underline is formed by a brisket reaching deep to the elbow, flowing back parallel to the ground to the base of the eighth or ninth rib, then ascending and gradually shortening to give a marked tuck-up, and flowing into a short loin.

Withers

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FCI
Shall be pronounced in height and length, especially in males and thereby determine the slope of the topline rising from the croup to the withers.

Back

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FCI
Short and tight, of good width and well muscled.

Loin

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FCI
Of good width and well muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer in loin because she requires space for suckling.

Croup

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FCI
It shall fall slightly, hardly perceptible from sacrum to the root of the tail, and appears well rounded, being neither straight nor noticeably sloping, of good width and well muscled.

Chest

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FCI
Length and depth of chest must be in the right proportion to the body length. The depth with slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% the height of the dog at the withers. The chest has got a good width with especially well developed forechest.

Underline and belly

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FCI
From the bottom of the breastbone to the pelvis the underline is noticeably tucked up.

TAIL

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FCI
It is high set and docked short whereby approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is legally not permitted the tail may remain natural.
KC
Previously customarily docked. Docked: Docked at 1st or 2nd joint. Appears to be a continuation of spine without material drop. Undocked: Appears to be a continuation of spine without material drop, kink or deformity. May be raised and carried freely when the dog is moving or standing.
UKC
Tail is generally docked at approximately the second joint and appears to be a continuation of the spine. The tail is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.

LIMBS

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FOREQUARTERS

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FCI
The front legs as seen from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
KC
Shoulder blade and upper arm meet at an angle of 90 degrees. Shoulder blade and upper arm approximately equal in length. Short upper arm relative to shoulder blade highly undesirable. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with round bone in proportion to body structure. Standing or gaiting, elbow lies close to brisket.
UKC
Shoulder blades slope forward and downward at a 45 degree angle to the ground meeting the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from the elbow to the withers approximately equals height from the ground to the elbow.

Shoulder

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FCI
The shoulder-blade lies close against the chest, and both sides of the shoulder-blade edge are well muscled and reach over the top of the thoracic vertebra, slanting as much as possible and well set back. The angle to the horizontal is approximately 50%.

Upper Arm

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FCI
Good length, well muscled, the angle to the shoulder-blade is approximately 105° to 110°.

Elbow

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FCI
Close in, not turned out.

FORELEGS

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UKC
When seen from the front or side, the legs are perfectly straight and parallel to each other from the elbow to pastern. The legs are well muscled and sinewy, with round, heavy bone proportionate to the body structure. Whether standing normally or moving, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns are firm and are nearly perpendicular to the ground, only slightly sloping.

Forearm

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FCI
Strong and straight. Well muscled. Length in harmony with the whole body.

Carpus (wrist)

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FCI
Strong.

Pastern

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FCI
Bones strong. Straight seen from the front. Seen from the side, only slightly sloping, maximum 10°.

FEET

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KC
Well arched, compact, and cat-like, turning neither in nor out. Long, flat deviating feet and/or weak pasterns highly undesirable.
UKC
The feet are well arched, compact and catlike turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws are generally removed.

Forefeet

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FCI
The feet are short and tight. The toes are arched towards the top (cat like). Nails short and black.

Hind feet

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FCI
Like the front feet, the toes of the back feet are short, arched and closed. Nails are short and black.

HINDQUARTERS

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FCI
Seen from the back the Dobermann looks, because of his well developed pelvic muscles in hips and croup, wide and rounded off. The muscles running from the pelvic towards the upper and lower thigh result in good width development, as well as in the upper thigh area, in the knee joint area and at the lower thigh. The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
KC
Legs parallel to each other and moderately wide apart. Pelvis falling away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees. Croup well filled out. Hindquarters well developed and muscular; long, well bent stifle; hocks turning neither in nor out. When standing, hock to heel perpendicular to the ground.
UKC
The angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the angulation of the forequarters. The hip bone slopes downward from the spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled out croup. Femurs are set at right angles to the hip bones.

Thigh

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FCI
Good length and width, well muscled. Good angulation to the hip joint. Angulation to the horizontal approximately between 80° to 85°.

Stifle

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FCI
The knee joint is strong and is formed by the upper and lower thigh as well as the knee cap. The knee angulation is approximately 130°.

HIND LEGS

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UKC
The upper thighs are long, wide and well muscled on both sides. Upper and lower thighs are of about equal length. Stifles are clearly defined. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel to each other. The rear pasterns are well let down and perpendicular to the ground when viewed from any angle.

Lower thigh

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FCI
Medium length and in harmony with the total length of the hindquarter.

Hock joint

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FCI
Medium strength and parallel. The lower thigh bone is joined to the metatarsal at the hock joint (angle about 140°).

Rear pastern

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FCI
It is short and stands vertical to the ground.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

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FCI
The gait is of special importance to both the working ability as well as the exterior appearance. The gait is elastic, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The front legs reach out as far as possible. The hind quarter gives far reaching and necessary elastic drive. The front leg of one side and back leg of the other side move forward at the same time. There should be good stability of the back, the ligaments and the joints.
KC
Elastic, free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in forequarters and driving power in hindquarters. When trotting, should have strong rear drive, with apparent rotary motion of hindquarters. Rear and front legs thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm.
UKC
When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good but not exaggerated reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the dog's head is carried forward, not upward. The topline should remain firm during movement and there should be no sideways swinging of the ribcage or rolling over the shoulders. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance.

SKIN

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FCI
The skin fits closely all over and is of good pigment.

COAT

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HAIR

:
FCI
The hair is short, hard and thick. It lies tight and smooth and is equally distributed over the whole surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
KC
Smooth, short, hard, thick and close-lying. Imperceptible undercoat on neck permissible. Hair forming a ridge on back of neck and/or along spine highly undesirable.
UKC
The coat is short, hard and thick. It is smooth and close lying. A barely visible gray undercoat on the neck is permissible.

COLOUR

:
FCI
The colour is black or brown, with rust red clearly defined and clean markings. Markings on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks and the top of the eyebrow, on the throat, two spots on the forechest, on the metacarpus, metatarsus and feet, on the inside of the back thigh, on the arms and below the tail.
KC
Definite black, brown, blue or fawn (Isabella) only, with rust red markings. Markings to be sharply defined, appearing above each eye, on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet and below tail. White markings of any kind highly undesirable.
UKC
There are four allowed colors: black, red, blue and fawn (Isabella). The "fawn" color is a dilute of brown and is a silvery beige color, more like the color of a Weimaraner than the traditional fawn found in Boxers or Great Danes. Markings are rust colored, sharply defined, located above each eye and on the muzzle, throat, forechest, all legs and feet, and below the tail. A small white patch on the chest, not exceeding ½ square inch is permissible.

SIZE

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KC
Ideal height at withers: dogs: 69 cms (27 ins); bitches: 65 cms (251/2 ins). Considerable deviation from this ideal undesirable.
UKC
The Doberman Pinscher is "medium" in all aspects of its physical characteristics. Ideal height in a mature male is 27 ½ inches, with 26 to 28 inches being acceptable. Ideal height in a mature female is 25 ½ inches with 24 to 26 inches being acceptable. The ideal Doberman Pinscher must have sufficient size and bone for strength and endurance but not so much as to impair its speed and agility.

Height at withers

:
FCI

Males 68 – 72 cm.
Bitches 63 – 68 cm.
Medium size desirable.

Weight

:
FCI

Males about 40 – 45 kg.
Bitches about 32 – 35 kg.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • General Appearance: Reversal of sexual impression; little substance; too light; too heavy; too leggy; weak bones.
  • Head: Too heavy, too narrow, too short, too long, too much or too little stop; Roman nose, bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak underjaw; round or slit eyes; light eye; cheeks too heavy; loose flews; eyes too open or too deepset; ear set too high or too low; open mouth angle.
  • Neck: Slightly short; too short; loose skin around the throat; dewlap; too long (not in harmony); ewe neck.
  • Body: Black not tight; sloping croup; sway back; roach back; insufficient or too much spring of rib; insufficient depth or width of chest; back too long overall; too little forechest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too much tuck up.
  • Limbs: Too little or too much angulation front or hindquarters; loose elbow; deviations from the standard position and length of bones and joints; feet too close together or too wide apart; cow-hocks, spread hocks, close hocks; open or soft paws, crooked toes; pale nails.
  • Coat: Markings too light or not sharply defined; smudged markings; mask too dark; big black spot on the legs; chest markings hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull. Thin coat; bald patches; large tufts of hair particularly on the body; visible undercoat.
  • Character: Inadequate self confidence; temperament too high; sharpness too high; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
  • Size: Deviation of size up to two centimetres from the standard should result in a lowering of the quality grading.
  • Gait: Wobbly; restricted or stiff gait; pacing.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
UKC

Eyes: Light, round or prominent eyes.
Ears: Uncropped ears that fold improperly and stand out to the sides; fully erect uncropped ears.
Body: Exaggerated "ski slope" topline; exaggerated tuck-up.
Tail: Gay tail or terrier tail.
Coat: Thin, sparse coat.
Color: Large, splashy markings; light or indistinct markings; absence of markings; markings that bleed into the solid color; white patch exceeding ½ square inch.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Character: Fearful, nervous and aggressive animals.
  • General: Pronounced reversal of sexual impressions.
  • Eyes: Yellow eyes (bird of prey eye); wall eye.
  • Dentition: Overshot; level bite; undershot; missing teeth.
  • Coat: White spots; pronounced long and wavy hair; pronounced thin coat or large bald patches.
  • Size: Outside of standard defined limits (official tolereance + 2cm and – 1 cm). Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified. Dogs which deviate more than two centimetres over or under the standard. Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
UKC

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Three or more missing teeth. Any color other black, red, blue or fawn (Isabella). Albinism.
Teeth: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch; undershot more than 1/8 of an inch; three or more missing teeth.
Color: Any color other than listed above, albinism.
Note: The docking of tails and cropping of ears in America is legal and remains a personal choice. However, as an international registry, the United Kennel Club, Inc. is aware that the practices of cropping and docking have been forbidden in some countries. In light of these developments, the United Kennel Club, Inc. feels that no dog in any UKC event, including conformation, shall be penalized for a full tail or natural ears.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.