Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Dalmatian

(Dalmatinski Pas)

Dalmatian

Dalmatian


ORIGIN

:
FCI
Croatia.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
13.10.2010.
KC
November 2010

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Hunting dog. Companion dog, family dog, suitable to be trained for various purposes.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 6Scent hounds and related breeds
Section 3Related breeds
Without working trial

KC
Utility
UKC
Companion Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Christina Bailey / Original version (DE).

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
The origin of the Dalmatian dog can be recognized in paintings and in church chronicles from the 16th to the 18th century. Dalmatians can be found on the altar painting “Madonna with Jesus and Angels” in the church “Gospa od andjela” in the town Veli Losinj, island Losinj in Croatia dating back to 1600 – 1630 and also in a fresco in Zaostrog, Dalmatia, Croatia. It suggests that the Dalmatian originates from the eastern Mediterranean region, in particular the historic province Dalmatia.
The first descriptions of the Dalmatian were found in the diocese Djakovo, in the Croatia, namely in the church chronicles of the Bishop Petar Bakic from the year 1719 and the church chronicles of Andreas Keczkemety from the year 1737. The dog was named with the Latin name “Canis Dalmaticus” and the height of the dog described with 4-5 “Spithamus”. Thomas Pennant described this breed in his work “Synopsis of Quadrupeds” in the year 1771 as very independent, named it “Dalmatian” and wrote the origin of this breed to be Dalmatia. A work by Thomas Bewick, published in 1790, refers to this breed as “Dalmatian or Coach Dog”. The first unofficial Dalmatian Standard was written by an Englishman named Vero Shaw in the year 1882.
After the formation of the Dalmatian Club in England in the year 1890 this standard was transferred to the first official breed standard.
The FCI published the first Dalmatian standard on the 7th of April 1955 under the name of “Dalmatian Huntingdog”.
UKC
The true origin of the Dalmatian is unknown, although it is believed to have originated in India. Paintings and figures of spotted dogs have been found in ruins as old as 5,000 years. Numerous written references to spotted dogs occur throughout history. The modern Dalmatian, notwithstanding his name however, was developed in Great Britain. While some Dalmatians were used for hunting, the breed’s primary purpose was as a coach dog. Coach dogs were by no means ornamental - they were there to guard the passengers and property in the coach. Because of their affinity for horses, it was natural for the Dalmatian to follow horse-drawn fire engines. Many fire departments are still graced by a Dalmatian mascot who guards the firehouse and helps educate children about fire safety. Dalmatians have been in this country since its founding, with George Washington being the most well known early breeder. The Dalmatian was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1914.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
Mesocephalic. Head prismatic form with hanging ears. The body is rectangular, strong, muscled and distinctively spotted. The movement must be elegant. The sexual difference must be visible.
KC
A distinctively spotted dog, balanced, strong, muscular and active. Symmetrical in outline, elegant, free from coarseness and lumber.
UKC
The Dalmatian is a medium-sized, well-balanced and muscular dog, with a distinctively spotted short coat, high-set drop ears and a natural tail carried with a slight upward curve. The correct relationship of length of body to height at withers is 10:9, making the breed slightly longer than tall. The Dalmatian should be free of exaggeration or coarseness. It is capable of great endurance, combined with a fair amount of speed. Deviations from the described ideal should be penalized in direct proportion to the degree of the deviation.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI
Length of the body height at the withers = 10 9. The height at the elbow joint 50% of the height at the withers. The height the hocks 20-25% of the height at the withers. Length of head around 40% of the height at the withers. Length of skull length of muzzle = 1 1.
KC
A carriage dog of good demeanour, capable of great endurance and a fair turn of speed.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Pleasant temperament, friendly, not shy or hesitant, free from nervousness and aggression. Lively kind, loyal, independent and easy to train. The Dalmatian likes water and outdoor activities. It has a marked hound instinct.
KC
Outgoing and friendly, not shy or hesitant, free from nervousness and aggression.
UKC
The Dalmatian is outgoing and friendly, never shy or hesitant. The breed should be free from any nervousness or aggression.

HEAD

:
FCI
The head must be in proportion and harmony with the rest of the body and not too wide in the skull area. The length from the occipital protuberance to the stop and from the stop to the tip of the nose equals 11, or the muzzle is slightly shorter. The upper line of the skull and the upper line of the muzzle are slightly divergent. The masseter muscle and the cheek bone must not be too developed. The head must be entirely free from wrinkle.
KC
Of fair length, skull flat, reasonably broad between ears, moderately well defined in front of ears. Entirely free from wrinkle. Moderate amount of stop. Muzzle powerful, never snipey. Distance from nose to stop equals that from stop to occiput. Lips clean, fitting jaws moderately closely. Nose in black spotted variety always black, in liver variety always brown.
UKC
The head is proportionate to the size of the dog and is free of loose skin. Viewed in profile, the top lines of the skull and muzzle lie in parallel planes. There is a moderate stop.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Flat, with a slight lateral rounding. Broadest between the ears and well defined temples. Slight frontal furrow.
UKC
The skull is almost flat, with a slight frontal furrow and well-defined temples. The skull is nearly as broad as it is long.

Stop

:
FCI
Moderately defined.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Large with wide open nostrils, it must be completely pigmented. The colour must be in accordance to the colour of the spotting.
UKC
The nose leather is completely pigmented, black in black-spotted dogs, and brown in liver-spotted dogs.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Well developed & strong jawbone, nasal bridge straight.
KC
Jaws strong, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
UKC
The cheeks blend smoothly into a powerful muzzle that is about equal in length to the skull. Lips are clean and close fitting.

Lips

:
FCI
Strong, must fit the jaw rather closely and not be pendulous, or too thick; without the corner of the mouth too defined. A complete pigmentation is desired.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Scissor bite, i.e. the upper 6 incisors closely overlapping the lower teeth, with all teeth set square to the jaw. A complete set of teeth (42 teeth) is desired (in accordance with the teeth formula). The teeth are evenly formed and white. A pincer bite is tolerated in older dogs.
UKC
The Dalmatian has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite.

Eyes

:
FCI
Oval, in a sub-frontal position placed at an angle of 10-15°. The eye colour is in accordance with the spotting. Eyelids are close to the eyeball and not loose. Eye rims are completely pigmented in accordance with the coat colour.
KC
Set moderately well apart, medium size, oval in shape, bright and sparkling, with intelligent expression. Colour dark brown in black spotted, amber in liver spotted, with uniformly pigmented irises. Fully pigmented eye rims, black in black spotted and liver brown in liver spotted.
UKC
Set moderately well apart, somewhat round, medium size, bright and sparkling with an intelligent and alert expression. Color dark brown in black spotted, light brown to amber in liver spotted dogs. Eye rims completely black in the black spotted, and completely liver brown in the liver spotted dogs.

Ears

:
FCI
Set on rather high, carried close to the lateral part of the head. The length reaches to the inner corner of the eye or to the stop. The tip is slightly rounded. The ears have the shape of an isosceles triangle. They are fine in texture and soft to the touch. It is very important that the ears are spotted, i.e. the ears must not be completely black or brown but black or brown spotted etc. with the spotting in accordance with the colour variety on the white base.
KC
Set on rather high, moderate size, rather wide at base, gradually tapering to rounded point. Fine in texture, carried close to head. Marking well broken up, preferably spotted.
UKC
The ears are drop, of moderate size, proportionately wide at the base and gradually tapering to a rounded tip. They are set rather high, are carried close to the head, and are thin and fine in texture. When the Dalmatian is alert, the top line of the ear is level with the top of the skull and the tip of the ear reaches to the bottom line of the cheek.

NECK

:
FCI
The neck should be strong and fairly long, tapering towards the head and free from throatiness.
KC
Fairly long, nicely arched, light and tapering. Entirely free from throatiness.
UKC
The neck is fairly long, nicely arched, and blends smoothly into the shoulders. The neck is entirely free of throatiness.

BODY

:
FCI
Rectangular, proportions of length of body to the height at the withers is 10 9.
KC
Length from point of shoulder to point of buttock slightly greater than height from withers to ground. Chest not too wide, but deep and capacious with plenty of lung and heart room. Ribs well sprung and carried well back. Well defined withers, powerful level back. Loin strong, clean, muscular and slightly arched.
UKC
The Dalmatian is about as long, measured from prosternum to point of buttocks, as tall, measured from the withers to the ground. The line of the back inclines very slightly downward from the withers and then becomes level. The loin is short, muscular and slightly arched but narrower than the rib cage, and with a moderate tuck-up. The croup is nearly level with the back. Viewed from the front, the chest is deep, moderately wide, and well filled. The ribs are well sprung without being barrel shaped. Viewed from the side, the forechest is well visible and the brisket extends to or below the elbow.

Withers

:
FCI
Well defined.

Back

:
FCI
Powerful, level.

Loin

:
FCI
Short and muscular.

Croup

:
FCI
Muscular, inclined less than 30°.

Chest

:
FCI
Deep and capacious, not too broad or barrel-shaped. The depth of the chest should be 45-50% of the height to the withers. The height of the elbow is 50% of the height to the withers. The ribs are well sprung.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
The belly is moderately tucked up but not drawn in.

TAIL

:
FCI
Set on at the extension of the croup. Reaching approximately to the hock or slightly longer. Strong at the base evenly tapering towards the tip, not too thick but in proportion to the body. Carried sabre-shaped. Preferably spotted.
KC
Length reaching approximately to hock. Strong at insertion gradually tapering towards end, never inserted too low or too high, free from coarseness and carried with a slight upward curve, never curled. Preferably spotted.
UKC
The tail is a natural extension of the topline. It is thicker at the base and tapers to the tip. It is carried with a slight upward curve but should never curl over the back. A tail of the correct length reaches to the hock.

LIMBS

:

FOREQUARTERS

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FCI
The forelegs must be in proportion to the rectangular body.
KC
Shoulders well laid back, clean, muscular with length of shoulder and upper arm approximately equal. Elbows set close to body. Forelegs perfectly straight with strong round bone down to feet, with slight spring at pastern joint.
UKC
The shoulders are smoothly muscled and well laid back. The upper arm is approximately equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an angle sufficient to insure that the foot falls under the center of the shoulder blade. The elbows are close to the body.

Shoulder

:
FCI
The shoulder angle is around 115-120°

Elbow

:
FCI
Close to the body.

FORELEGS

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UKC
The legs are straight, strong and sturdy with round bone. Pasterns are short and slightly sloping, with some spring.

Forearm

:
FCI
The bones are developed in proportion to the body and strong (round), forequarters placed straight and legs standing vertical.

Pastern

:
FCI
Strong, slightly sloping with a spring.

FEET

:
KC
Round, compact, with well arched toes, cat-like, round, tough, elastic pads. Nails black or white in black spotted variety, in liver spotted, brown or white.
UKC
Good feet are an essential feature of this breed. The feet are round and compact with well-arched toes and thick, elastic pads. Toenails may be black or white in black-spotted dogs, and brown or white in liver-spotted dogs. Dewclaws may be removed.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Forefeet The toes are compact, so called cat feet are typical. Pads are tough and elastic. The nails should preferably be pigmented.

Hind feet

:
FCI
The toes are compact, so called cat feet are typical. Pads are tough and elastic. The nails should preferably be pigmented.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
In proportion to the body. With strong well developed muscles. Hindlegs are parallel.
KC
Rounded, muscles clean with well developed second thigh, good turn of stifle, hocks well defined.
UKC
The hindquarters are rounded and powerful, with smooth, well-defined muscles.

Thigh

:
FCI
Muscular and strong.

Stifle

:
FCI
Strong and well developed. The stifle has an angle of 40 degree to the horizontal line.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
The legs are straight and parallel from hip to foot when viewed from behind. The second thigh is strong and there is good angulation at the stifle and hock joints.

Hock joint

:
FCI
Strong.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
The length of the hocks is around 20-25% of the height to the withers. The angle of the hock is around 130°.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Rhythmic action, elegant and smooth movement. Stride and trot long with good reach and strong drive. Viewed from the front the legs are parallel.
KC
Great freedom of movement. Smooth, powerful, rhythmic action with long stride. Viewed from fore and aft, the legs should appear straight with a degree of convergence towards the centre line at the trot. The feet should move along straight lines with the rear feet tracking the fore. A short stride and paddling action is incorrect.
UKC
In light of the Dalmatian’s historical use as a coach dog, correct movement and endurance are essential. Powerful drive from the rear combined with extended reach in front results in a steady, effortless trot. Elbows, hocks and feet turn neither in nor out. The topline remains level when gaiting. As the speed of the trot increases, there is a tendency to single track. Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the Dalmatians ability to perform the task it was bred to do.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI
Short, shiny, hard and dense all over the body.
KC
Short, hard, dense; sleek and glossy in appearance.
UKC
The coat is short, dense, fine and close fitting. A correct Dalmatian coat is glossy and sleek.

COLOUR

:
FCI
The ground colour is pure white. Black spotted variety with black spots, liver spotted variety with brown spots. The spots should be symmetrically placed all over the body, clearly defined and without intermingling into the white ground colour. The size of the spots should preferably be even, with a size of 2 – 3 cm in diameter. In the brown variety the spots are a little smaller, around 2 cm. The spots on the head and on the legs should be proportional smaller than on the rest of the body. It is desirable the tail is spotted too, with spots also proportional smaller that those on the body. Splashes on the body are not desirable and should be penalised. The spots must not intermingle, i.e. forming large patches. Patches and coloured areas are not desirable. The spots on the ears should be especially noted.
KC
Ground colour pure white. Black spotted having dense black spots, liver spotted, liver brown spots; not running together but round and well defined. In size 2cm-3cm in diameter as well distributed as possible. Spots on extremities smaller than those on the body. Tricolours and spotting other than black or liver unacceptable. Bronzing on spots undesirable in adults. Some patching on ears or head not to be penalised.
UKC
Color and markings, and their overall appearance, are very important points to be evaluated. The ground color is pure white. In black-spotted dogs, the spots are dense black. In liver-spotted dogs, the spots are liver brown. Spots are round and well-defined, the more distinct the better. Spots vary from the size of a dime to the size of a half-dollar. They are pleasingly and evenly distributed. The less the spots intermingle the better. Spots are usually smaller on the head, legs and tail than on the body. Ears are preferably spotted. Dalmatians are spotted dogs without large patches. Patches are a serious fault; they should be faulted in proportion to the degree that they vary from the ideal description of spots. Some limited patching around the eyes (monocle) and on or around ears is acceptable but not preferred.

SIZE

:
KC
Overall balance of prime importance. Ideal height: dogs: 58-61 cms (23-24 ins); bitches: 56-58 cms (22-23 ins).
UKC
The Dalmatian has good substance and is strong and sturdy in bone, but never coarse. Desirable height is between 19 and 23 inches measured at the withers.

Height at withers

:
FCI

Males 56 – 62 cms. Females 54 – 60 cms.
Dogs with excellent type and balance should not be penalised if above the upper limit.

FAULTS

:
FCI
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on its ability to perform its traditional work.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.
UKC

Muzzle: Snipey muzzle.
Tail: Tail set well below the topline; ring tail; vertical tail.
Size: Undersize or oversize.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
UKC

Nose: Incomplete nose pigmentation.
Eyes: Functional abnormality of eyelids or eyelashes; incomplete pigmentation of the eye rims.
Hind Legs: Cow hocks.
Coat: Woolly or silky coat.
Color: Patches. They should be faulted in proportion to the degree that they vary from the ideal description of spots.
Size: Over 24 inches at the withers.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Converging head line.
  • The lack of more than 6 premolars, the lack of M3 is not noted and will not be considered as a fault.
  • Entropion, ectropion, wall eye, eyes of different colours (heterochromia), blue
  • eyes, partially blue coloured iris.
  • Lack of nose pigment.
  • Curled tail.
  • Monocle (patching around one or both eyes) or patching elsewhere.
  • Tricolour (black and brown spots on the same dog), brindle coloured spots, lemon coloured spots, orange coloured spots, blue spots and pure white colour without spots.
  • Wirehaired or longhaired
  • Deafness
UKC

(An Eliminating Fault is a Fault serious enough that it eliminates the dog from obtaining any awards in a conformation event.) Blue eyes. Eyes of two different colors.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Overshot or undershot bite. Any color markings other than black or liver. Tri-color. Lemon-colored spots. Albinism.
Teeth: Overshot or undershot bite.
Color: Any color markings other than black or liver. Tri-color, lemon-colored spots, and albinism are disqualifications.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.