Fédération Cynologique Internationale

The Kennel Club

United Kennel Club

Chihuahua

(Chihuahueño)

Chihuahua (Smooth Coat)

Chihuahua

These illustrations do not necessarily show the ideal example of the breed.

ORIGIN

:
FCI
Mexico.

PUBLISHED

:
FCI
28.07.2009.
KC
October 2009

UTILISATION

:
FCI
Companion dog.

CLASSIFICATION

:
FCI
Group 9Companion and Toy Dogs
Section 6Chihuahueño
Without working trial

KC
Toy
UKC
Companion Dog

TRANSLATION

:
FCI
Chris Seidler.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

:
FCI
The Chihuahua is regarded as the smallest pedigree dog in the world and carries the name of the largest state of the Mexican Republic (Chihuahua). One assumes that these dogs used to live in the wild and, at the time of the Toltec civilization, were captured and domesticated by the natives. Representations of a Toy dog called « Techichi » which lived in Tula, were used as decorations on town architecture. These statues are very similar to the present day Chihuahua.
UKC
The history of the Chihuahua is lost in antiquity. It is known that both the Toltecs and the Aztecs kept dogs, some of which were used for food, some for religious purposes, and some for companionship. Whether these dogs were Chihuahuas or not is uncertain. The breed came to the attention of the modern world in the mid-19th century when American visitors to Mexico brought the tiny dogs home. Chihuahuas first appeared in American dog shows in 1890. Today the Chihuahua is a popular companion dog. The Chihuahua was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1948.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

:
FCI
This dog has a compact body. Of great importance is the fact that his skull is apple-shaped and that he carries his moderately long tail very high, either curved or forming the shape of a semicircle with the tip pointing towards the loin region.
KC
Small, dainty, compact.
UKC
The Chihuahua is a small, active dog, with a rounded skull; a short, pointed muzzle; erect ears that flare out somewhat to the side; and a sickle tail. The breed comes in many colors and color patterns, and in both smooth and long coats.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

:
FCI
Length of body slightly greater than height at withers. Desired, however, is an almost square body, especially in males. In bitches, because of the function of reproduction, a slightly longer body is permitted.
KC
Alert little dog; swift-moving with brisk, forceful action and saucy expression.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

:
FCI
Quick, alert, lively and very courageous.
KC
Gay, spirited and intelligent, neither snappy nor withdrawn.
UKC
Despite its small size, the Chihuahua is an alert, active dog with plenty of self-confidence. The Chihuahua’s small size and devotion to its owner have made this breed a popular companion dog. Chihuahuas are courageous little watchdogs who are more than willing to defend their territory against strange people and dogs.

HEAD

:
KC
Well rounded ‘apple dome’ skull, cheeks and jaws lean, muzzle moderately short, slightly pointed. Definite stop.
UKC
The Chihuahua has a distinctive headpiece that is essential to correct breed type.

CRANIAL REGION

:

Skull

:
FCI
Well rounded apple head (a characteristic of the breed).
UKC
The skull is large and well rounded, sometimes called an “apple dome” or an “apple head.” Viewed from the side, the line of the skull should curve in a semi-circle from the occiput around to the muzzle. The stop is vertical with the line of the skull, forming a 90-degree angle where it joins the muzzle. Cheeks are clean.

Stop

:
FCI
Well marked, deep and broad as the forehead is rounded above the set-on of muzzle.

FACIAL REGION

:

Nose

:
FCI
Any colour permitted. Moderately short, pointing slightly upwards.
UKC
Nose color varies with coat color. Accepted nose colors include black, brown, beige, pinkish-beige, or reddish-beige.

Muzzle

:
FCI
Short, straight seen from side, broad at set-on, tapering towards the tip.
KC
Jaws strong, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
UKC
The muzzle is moderately short and somewhat pointed, although it should be broad and deep enough to support healthy dentition. Viewed from the side, the bridge of the muzzle forms a right angle to the line of the forehead. Lips are tight and clean.

Lips

:
FCI
Lean and close fitting.

Jaws/Teeth

:
FCI
Scissor or pincer bite. Overshot, undershot, as well as any other anomaly in position of upper or lower jaw must be strictly penalized.
UKC
The Chihuahua has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors or level bite.

Cheeks

:
FCI
Only slightly developed, very clean.

Eyes

:
FCI
Large, roundish in shape, very expressive, not protruding, perfectly dark. Light eyes permissible, but not desired.
KC
Large, round, but not protruding; set well apart; centre of eye is on a plane with lowest point of ear and base of stop; dark or ruby. Light eyes in light colours permissible.
UKC
Eyes are full but not protruding, and set well apart. Expression is bright and the eyes are luminous. Eye color varies with coat color, but dark eyes are preferred. Light eyes in dogs with pale coat colors are permissible but not desirable.

Ears

:
FCI
Large, upright, widely open, broad at set-on, gradually tapering towards their slightly rounded tip. In repose inclined laterally forming an angle of 45°.
KC
Large, flaring, set on at an angle of approximately 45 degrees; giving breadth between ears. Tipped or broken down highly undesirable.
UKC
Ears are large and erect, broad at the base and tapering towards their slightly rounded points. They are set so that the bottom edge of the ear is attached at the same level as the outer corner of the eye. The ears are normally carried so that the tips point slightly outward. This ear carriage is sometimes referred to as “at 10 o’clock and 2 o’clock,” referring to the position of these numbers on a clock face. A line drawn from the outer corner of the eye to the inner corner and a line drawn from the inner corner of the eye to the tip of the ear form a 45-degree angle. When the dog is alert, the ears may be raised slightly. Longhaired Chihuahuas whose ears droop slightly as a result of the weight of heavy fringing on the ears are not to be penalized.

NECK

:
FCI
Upper profile slightly arched. Medium length. Thicker in dogs than in bitches. Without dewlap. In the long-haired variety, the presence of a neck-ruff with longer hair is highly desirable.
KC
Slightly arched, medium length.
UKC
The neck is of medium length and slightly arched, blending smoothly into well laid back shoulders. It is free from dewlap, and is thicker in males than in females.

BODY

:
FCI
Compact and well built.
KC
Level back. Body, from point of shoulder to rear point of croup, slightly longer than height at withers. Well sprung ribs, deep brisket.
UKC
A properly proportioned Chihuahua is slightly longer (measured from prosternum to point of buttocks) than tall (measured from the withers to the ground), and length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) should approximately equal one-half of the dog’s height. Whether the dog is standing or moving, the line of the back is strong and level. The loin is moderately short and deep, with very little tuck-up. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung, but not barrel shaped, forming a body that would be heart-shaped if viewed in cross-section. The brisket extends to the elbow. Viewed from the side, the forechest extends in a slight, gentle curve in front of the forelegs.

Topline

:
FCI
Level.

Withers

:
FCI
Only slightly marked.

Back

:
FCI
Short and firm.

Loin

:
FCI
Strongly muscled.

Croup

:
FCI
Broad and strong; almost flat or slightly sloping.

Chest

:
FCI
Ribcage broad and deep, ribs well sprung. Seen from front, roomy but not exaggerated. Seen from side, reaching to elbows. Not barrel shaped.

Underline and belly

:
FCI
Formed by a clearly tucked up belly. Slack belly is permitted but not desired.

TAIL

:
FCI
Set on high, flat in appearance, of moderate length; broad at root, tapering gradually towards the tip. Tail carriage is an important characteristic of the breed when the dog is moving it is carried either high in a curve or in a semicircle with tip towards the loin region, which gives balance to the body, it should never be carried between the hindlegs nor curled below the backline. The hair on the tail depends on the variety and is in harmony with the body coat. In the long haired variety, the tail coat forms a plume. Tail is pendant in repose and forms a slight hook.
KC
Medium length, set high, carried up and over back (sickle tail). When moving never tucked under or curled below the topline. Furry, flattish in appearance, broadening slightly in centre and tapering to point.
UKC
The tail is moderately long, set on high, and never docked. It is thick at the base tapering gradually to a point. Acceptable tail carriages include sickle or a single curl with the tip just touching the back. Tail carriage is an important characteristic of the breed. It should never be carried between the hind legs or curled below the backline.

LIMBS

:

FOREQUARTERS

:
FCI
Forelegs seen from the front form a straight line with the elbows. Seen from the side, they are upright.
KC
Shoulders well laid; lean, sloping into slightly broadening support above straight forelegs, set well under chest giving freedom of movement without looseness.
UKC
Shoulders are clean and moderately muscled. There is good angulation between the shoulder blade and upper arm.

Shoulder

:
FCI
Clean and moderately muscled.

Upper Arm

:
FCI
Good angulation between shoulder-blade and upper arm.

Elbow

:
FCI
Firm and fitting close to body, which ensures free movement.

FORELEGS

:
UKC
The legs are straight and of good length, with the elbows held close to the body. The pasterns are strong yet flexible. Dewclaws may be removed.

Forearm

:
FCI
Straight and of good length.

Pastern

:
FCI
Slightly sloping, strong and flexible.

FEET

:
KC
Small and dainty, turning neither in nor out; toes well divided but not spread, pads cushioned, fine, strong, flexible pasterns. Neither hare- nor cat-like, nails moderately short.
UKC
Feet are small and oval-shaped with the toes well split up, but not spread out. Pads are well cushioned. Toenails may be any color.

Forefeet

:
FCI
Very small and oval with toes well apart but not splayed (neither hare- nor cat-foot). Nails particularly well arched and moderately long. Pads well developed and very elastic. Dewclaws are not desirable.

Hind feet

:
FCI
As Forefeet.

HINDQUARTERS

:
FCI
Hindlegs well muscled with long bones, vertical and parallel to each other with good angulation at hip, knee and hock joints, in harmony with angulation of forequarters.
KC
Muscular; hocks well let down, with good turn of stifle, well apart, turning neither in nor out.
UKC
The hindquarters are muscular and the angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the angulation of the forequarters.

HIND LEGS

:
UKC
The legs are parallel to one another with good angulation at the stifle and the hock. Rear pasterns are short, well apart and vertical. Removal of rear dewclaws is preferred but not mandatory.

Rear pastern

:
FCI
Short hocks with well developed Achilles’ tendons; seen from rear, they are well apart straight and vertical.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

:
FCI
Steps are long, springy, energetic and active with good reach and drive. Seen from rear, hind legs should move almost parallel to each other, so that the footprints of the hind feet fit directly into those of the front feet. With increasing speed, the limbs show a tendency to converge towards the median plane (single track). Movement remains free and springy without visible effort, head raised and back firm.
KC
Brisk, forceful action, neither high-stepping nor hackney; good reach without slackness in forequarters, good drive in hindquarters. Viewed from front and behind legs should move neither too close nor too wide, with no turning in or out of feet or pasterns. Topline should remain firm and level when moving.
UKC
When trotting, the gait is effortless, energetic, active and springy, with good reach and drive. The hind legs should move nearly parallel to each other so that the rear feet appear to land in the footprints of the front feet. At greater speed, there is a tendency to converge toward a center line of travel. The head is carried high and the backline remains firm and level.

SKIN

:
FCI
Smooth and elastic all over body.

COAT

:

HAIR

:
FCI

In this breed there are two varieties of coat.
Smooth-haired: Coat is short, lying close all over body. If there is an undercoat, the hair is somewhat longer; sparse coat on throat and belly permissible; slightly longer on neck and tail, short on face and ears. Coat is glossy and its texture is soft. Hairless dogs are not tolerated.
Longed-haired: Coat should be fine and silky, smooth or slightly wavy. Not too thick undercoat desired. Coat is longer, forming feathering on ears, neck, rear of front and hind legs, on feet and on tail. Dogs with long billowing coat will not be accepted.
KC
Smooth Coat: smooth, of soft texture, close and glossy, with undercoat and ruff permissible.
UKC
The Chihuahua comes in two coat types, and it may be single or double coated. If undercoat is present, it is soft, dense, and close fitting. Smooth Coat - The outer coat is soft, glossy, and close fitting. The hair is longer on the neck and tail. Sparse coat on the throat and abdomen is permitted, but hairless dogs are not acceptable. Disqualification: Bald patch (alopecia). Long Coat - The outer coat is soft and fine, straight or slightly wavy. If undercoat is present, it should not be too thick. The coat forms feathering on ears, neck, back of legs, feet and tail.

COLOUR

:
FCI
All colours in all possible shades and combinations are admitted, except merle colour.
KC
Any colour or mixture of colours but never merle (dapple).
UKC
All colors in all shades and combinations are acceptable, except merle.

SIZE

:
FCI
In this breed only the weight is taken into consideration, not the height.
KC
Weight: up to 2.7 kgs (6 lbs), with 1.8 - 2.7 kgs (4 - 6 lbs) preferred.
UKC
The ideal weight is between 3 and 6½ pounds, though smaller dogs are acceptable.

Weight

:
FCI

Ideal weight between 1.5 and 3 kgs. Weight between 500 gr. and 1.5 kgs tolerated.
Subjects weighing less than 500 gr and more than 3 kg shall be disqualified.

FAULTS

:
FCI

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
  • Missing teeth.
  • “Double teeth” (persistence of temporary teeth).
  • Pointed ears.
  • Short neck.
  • Long body.
  • Roach or hollow back (Lordosis or Kyphosis).
  • Steep croup.
  • Narrow chest, flat ribcage.
  • Tail incorrect set-on, short or twisted.
  • Short limbs.
  • Out at elbow.
  • Too close behind.
KC
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

SERIOUS FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Narrow skull.
  • Eyes small, deep set or protruding.
  • Long muzzle.
  • Under or overshot mouth.
  • Unstable stifle.
UKC

Skull: Flat skull; stop with an angle greater than 90 degrees.
Teeth: Overshot or undershot bite; wry mouth; crowded teeth; missing teeth; mouth unable to close.
Coat: Long, billowing coat.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

:
FCI

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Deer type dogs (dogs with an atypical or extremely stylized structure refined head, long neck, slender body, long limbs).
  • Dogs with an open fontanel.
  • Drop ear or short ear.
  • Deformed jaws.
  • Extremely long body.
  • Absence of tail.
  • In the long- haired variety Dogs with very long, fine and billowing coat.
  • In the smooth-haired variety Bald patch (alopecia).
  • Merle colour.
  • Subjects weighing less than 500 gr and more than 3 kg.
UKC


Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Albinism. Drop ears after six months of age. Cropped ears. An open fontanel, a hole or gap in the center of the skull, referred to as a molero. Cropped tail. Bobtail. Bald patch (alopecia) in the Smooth Coated variety. Merle color.
Skull: An open fontanel, a hole or gap in the center of the skull, referred to as a molero.
Ears: Drop ears after six months of age; cropped ears.
Tail: Cropped tail. Bobtail.
Color: Albinism. Merle color.
Size: Over 6½ pounds. Under one pound.
Size: Over 6½ pounds.
Size: Under one pound.


Anatomical Features of the dog

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.